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Exoplanetary Scratchpad

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Clarified Giants are giant planets that are too hot for volatile clouds to form, but not hot enough for non-volatiles clouds to form. They appear sky-blue in color. Here is a list of Clarified Jovians and Clarified Neptunians as appear on Extrasolar Visions. This list may be updated to incorporate new science and discoveries. For a list of those exactly seen on Extrasolar Visions, see EV Clarified Giants.

Clarified JoviansEdit

  • HD 192263 System - An early detected cloudless blue Jovian around an orange dwarf star.
  • HD 330075 System - A cloudless blue jovian around an orange dwarf star.
  • HD 59686 System - A cloudless blue jovian around an orange giant star.
  • HD 102117 System - A cloudless blue jovian around an yellow dwarf star.
  • HD 104985 System - A cloudless blue jovian around an yellow giant star.
  • HD 47536 System - Very large orange giant star with two large eccentric jovian discovered by the European-Brazilian team. The inner planet is at Earth-like distance, but is too hot for clouds to appear.
  • Epsilon Reticuli System - A cloudless blue jovian around an orange sub-giant star. This was the first exoplanet discovered beyond 0.2 AU that had a circular orbit.
  • HD 130322 System - A cloudless blue jovian around an orange dwarf star discovered by the Coralie survey. Called a Hot Jupiter by its discoverers due to its low orbital period, it could also be thought of as a Warm Jupiter due to its relatively cooler temperature.
  • HD 178911 System - A cloudless blue jovian around one of the two yellow giant star in a binary system.
  • HD 11964 System - Sunlike star with two eccentric gas giants detected in 2005. The outermost one was retracted but then re-confirmed as one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing. The inner most has half the mass of Saturn and is too hot for clouds. The outer one is cool and likely dominated by white water clouds. A middle planet may also exist.
  • HD 121504 System - A cloudless blue jovian around an yellow dwarf star.
  • HD 195019 System - A cloudless blue jovian around an yellow dwarf star.
  • HD 99492 System - A cloudless blue jovian around an orange dwarf star.
  • HD 27894 System - A cloudless blue jovian around an orange dwarf star.
  • 55 Cancri System - Copernicus is also known as Rho Cancri, 55 Cancri, Rho1 Cancri, HR 3522, Gl 324, and HD 75732. Wide binary star consisting of a sun-like primary (A, though super metal rich) and a red-dwarf secondary (B) separated by 1,100 AU, 41 light years away. Star A contains five exoplanets, the first system found with four or five planets. It has three tightly packed eccentric planets close in to the star, including planet Jannsen (e, hot Super Earth/Neptunian), Galileo (b, warm Jupiter), and Brahe (c, hot Saturn), followed by an eccentric Saturn in the habitable zone (Harriot, f) and a Jupiter analog, Lippershey (d). Planet e was heralded as the first Neptunian discovered. It was later found to be the shortest-period planet discovered (18 hours) and to transit. Its density was measured and determined to be rocky, and thus re-dubbed the first Super-Earth discovered. It was then the first super-Earth to have its light detected (by Spitzer in the infrared). The planet has about half of Neptune's mass, but is Earth-like in size and density (2.17 Earth Radius). Studies taking into account the composition of the star suggested that it was largely made of diamond, with graphite at the surface (the first diamond planet around a Sunlike star), and the first terrestrial found with fundamentally different surface composition and processes than Earth. This was later refuted when it turned out there wasn't as much carbon in the parent star as believed. Earlier studies that assumed an Earth-like composition suggested that it would be covered with an ocean of super-critical water. The brightness of the planet was found to have raised dramatically, possibly the aftermath of cloud cover due to a volcanic eruption. The brightness of the star (also closest known to transit and only known naked eye star to do so) makes it more easily studied than other hot super Earths. It was found to be dark and its sun-facing side hot enough to melt metal. It became the first super Earth to have its atmospheric composition measured (mostly hydrogen and helium with hints of hydrogen cyanide which would only dominate in a carbon-rich environment and no traces of water vapor) and temperature mapped, and the large hemispherical temperature differences suggest little atmosphere to transport heat. Planet b (one of the original 4 Hot Jupiters discovered) is the first "warm Jupiter" found to have a puffed up atmosphere and it probably at the outer limit from the star at which a planet can lose its atmosphere in this way. Its outer atmosphere skims the surface of the star, which was detected when attempting to detect an atmosphere around transiting Janssen. The strong interaction between planets Galileo and Brahe can be detected in measurements, and it took a while to find a fit that would allow them to survive over long periods of time. Harriot is a very eccentric Saturnian in the habitable zone. Planet d is a super jovian at Jupiter-like distances, which was the first found at true Jupiter distances and still the exoplanet discovered with dopplar spectrometry with the largest known semi-major axis. It was first thought to be circular, then eccentric, and then circular again. The distant outer star causes Lippershey's axis to flip on its axis every million years. Lippershey in turn causes the other planets to flip, including its star. The axis tilt of transiting planet e should be determined at some point. "Bode's law" predicts four undiscovered planets. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU.
  • HD 2638 System - A yellow dwarf star with a cloudless blue Jovian, a newly discovered star at 28 AU away, and another star gravitationally bound to it 0.7 ly away. The newly discovered star is close enough to the earlier discovered planet to influence its development.
  • Rho Coronae Borealis System - Has the first planet discovered closer than its star's habitability zone but not a Hot Jupiter or an Eccentric Giant. This planet was the first detected by the AFOE team. A dust disk was detected the same year as the planet, making it the first system observed to have both.
  • HD 101930 System - A cloudless blue jovian around an orange dwarf star.
  • Gliese 86 System - Contains the first exoplanet discovered by CORALIE of the Geneva southern extrasolar planet search programme. A cloudless blue heavy jupiter and a white dwarf around an orange star.

Eccentric Clarified JoviansEdit

  • 79 Ceti System - A yellow subgiant star around which the smaller of the first 2 Saturnians discovered (HD 46375 b was the other one) is in a Mercury-like orbit.
  • HD 216770 System - Template:HD 216770 System
  • HD 169830 System - Bright star with two eccentric planets known in 2003. One is likely too hot to have any clouds, while the other one is likely to sport white water cloud bands.
  • HD 168443 System - Contains the first planet discovered whose minimum mass was near the planet/brown dwarf boundary which orbits at a asteroid belt-like distance. Also contains a second huge planet at least 7 times as massive as Jupiter orbiting at Mercury-like distances.
  • 54 Piscium System - 54 Piscium is a nearby orange dwarf star also known as HR 166, Gl 27, Hip 3093, HD 3651. Has an eccentric planet about the mass of Saturn orbiting at Mercury-like distances. A recently discovered faint distant T type brown dwarf 476 AU away was found to be the cause of this eccentricity, which was directly imaged.
  • HD 52265 System - Sunlike star 90 ly away in Monoceros with a planet. Star is 1.2 the Sun's radius, 1.3 its mass, and 2.5 BY old. The star is an ideal object of study for the interactions between stars and planets. One of the six extrasolar systems known to have planets to be first shown to also have a dust disk by Spitzer. Planet independently discovered by CORALIE and Carnegie teams and is at least a 1.09 MJ Jovian in a hot eccentric orbit. By analyzing sonic vibrations, oscillations in brightness, through astroseismology, the exact internal spin rate (12 days) and orientation of the star has been computed. Assuming the planet orbits along the star's equator, it's mass can be inferred to be 1.85 Jupiter's, calming some suspicions that it may be a brown dwarf.
  • HD 34445 System - Template:HD 34445 System
  • HD 74156 System - Sunlike star with two planets more massive than Jupiter, one in about Mercury's position, and one at an Asteroid Belt-like position. A planet was predicted in between these two at Earth-like distances and later found, the first vindicated prediction since Neptune. This supports the "Packed Planetary Systems" theory. Some have suggested that it's one Earth year orbit period may mean its detection is due to Earth based observation errors.
  • 55 Cancri System - Copernicus is also known as Rho Cancri, 55 Cancri, Rho1 Cancri, HR 3522, Gl 324, and HD 75732. Wide binary star consisting of a sun-like primary (A, though super metal rich) and a red-dwarf secondary (B) separated by 1,100 AU, 41 light years away. Star A contains five exoplanets, the first system found with four or five planets. It has three tightly packed eccentric planets close in to the star, including planet Jannsen (e, hot Super Earth/Neptunian), Galileo (b, warm Jupiter), and Brahe (c, hot Saturn), followed by an eccentric Saturn in the habitable zone (Harriot, f) and a Jupiter analog, Lippershey (d). Planet e was heralded as the first Neptunian discovered. It was later found to be the shortest-period planet discovered (18 hours) and to transit. Its density was measured and determined to be rocky, and thus re-dubbed the first Super-Earth discovered. It was then the first super-Earth to have its light detected (by Spitzer in the infrared). The planet has about half of Neptune's mass, but is Earth-like in size and density (2.17 Earth Radius). Studies taking into account the composition of the star suggested that it was largely made of diamond, with graphite at the surface (the first diamond planet around a Sunlike star), and the first terrestrial found with fundamentally different surface composition and processes than Earth. This was later refuted when it turned out there wasn't as much carbon in the parent star as believed. Earlier studies that assumed an Earth-like composition suggested that it would be covered with an ocean of super-critical water. The brightness of the planet was found to have raised dramatically, possibly the aftermath of cloud cover due to a volcanic eruption. The brightness of the star (also closest known to transit and only known naked eye star to do so) makes it more easily studied than other hot super Earths. It was found to be dark and its sun-facing side hot enough to melt metal. It became the first super Earth to have its atmospheric composition measured (mostly hydrogen and helium with hints of hydrogen cyanide which would only dominate in a carbon-rich environment and no traces of water vapor) and temperature mapped, and the large hemispherical temperature differences suggest little atmosphere to transport heat. Planet b (one of the original 4 Hot Jupiters discovered) is the first "warm Jupiter" found to have a puffed up atmosphere and it probably at the outer limit from the star at which a planet can lose its atmosphere in this way. Its outer atmosphere skims the surface of the star, which was detected when attempting to detect an atmosphere around transiting Janssen. The strong interaction between planets Galileo and Brahe can be detected in measurements, and it took a while to find a fit that would allow them to survive over long periods of time. Harriot is a very eccentric Saturnian in the habitable zone. Planet d is a super jovian at Jupiter-like distances, which was the first found at true Jupiter distances and still the exoplanet discovered with dopplar spectrometry with the largest known semi-major axis. It was first thought to be circular, then eccentric, and then circular again. The distant outer star causes Lippershey's axis to flip on its axis every million years. Lippershey in turn causes the other planets to flip, including its star. The axis tilt of transiting planet e should be determined at some point. "Bode's law" predicts four undiscovered planets. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU.
  • Iota Draconis System - (aka Edasich) A magnitude 3.1 orange-red giant star 101 ly away also known as Iota Draconis. It can be found in the sky by tracing a line from Polaris to the furthest "dipper" star. The next star over from the alpha star Thuban in the constellation. Contains the first planet (8.8 MJ) discovered orbiting a giant star (12 RS, 1.8 MS), Hypatia, proving planets at Earth-like distances can survive the evolution of their stars to giant phase. It is in an extremely eccentric orbit at 1.5 AU (0.7, 0.34-2.17 AU), which aided its detection as giant stars have pulsations which can mimic the presence of a planet. The habitable zone starts at 6.8 AU, so this planet is well within it during its entire orbit. Its radial velocity effects are only observable when it is at its nearest to the star. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The planet is named after a Neo-Platonic Greek astronomer.
  • HD 73526 System - System with two large orbit-crossing Jovians locked in 1:2 resonance that would span the inner solar system to the asteroid belt. The second planet was one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 11977 System - Template:HD 11977 System
  • HD 6434 System - Template:HD 6434 System
  • HD 37605 System - Contains the first exoplanet discovered by the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET), which was the third most eccentric planet found, ranging from Hot Jupiter distance to Mercury-like distance.
  • HD 177830 System - Template:HD 177830 System
  • HD 208487 System - Template:HD 208487 System
  • HD 89744 System - Contains a highly eccentric planet which was recently studied to determine what other planets could exist in the system.
  • HD 114762 System - Multiple star system containing the first discovered extrasolar planet, though not the first confirmed one. This planet was also called Latham's Planet. It could be a Brown Dwarf, though a Super Jupiter seems more likely.
  • 70 Virginis System -
  • HD 117618 System - Template:HD 117618 System
  • Upsilon Andromedae System - Titawin (Upsilon Andromeadae) is a nearby (44 ly) multi-star system which is the first multiplanet system found around a main sequence star or a multi-star system. The main star around which the planets orbit is a yellow-white star somewhat younger than the sun and its companion is a red dwarf in a wide orbit. It is one of the most well studied non-transiting star systems. Roaster Saffar (b, 0.05 au, 0.62 MJ, e=0.013, and the nearest true Hot Jupiter to Earth) is nicknamed the Fire and Ice Planet because it is hot on one side and cold on the other. The hottest parts of the planet are near the trailing side terminator at the equator, due to high velocity winds transporting heat to the night side. This is 80deg offset from the starward pole and a much greater offset than other observed hot Jupiters. This threw astronomers off and caused them to doubt the wind-theory, though later observations of other planets have shown that winds indeed can travel fast enough to cause this. Stability studies and observations suggest its diameter is 1.8 DJ, rather large for a planet its age. The middle planets Samh (c, 0.83 au, 1.8 MJ, initially thought to possibly be a brown dwarf star, e=0.224) and Majriti (d, 2.5 au, 10.2 MJ, e=0.26) have had their inclinations and masses determined with astrometry, the first determination of relative inclinations of exoplanets. They are very eccentric and highly inclined to each other (30 deg). Planet scattering was thought to be a source until the outermost planet was discovered. This is planet e (5.2 au, 1.05 MJ, e = 0.005), which is the most Jupiter-like exoplanet known, and is in 3:1 resonance with planet d. Planet c is in the habitable zone, though any habitable moons would see drastic temperature swings. The star appears to have no Kuiper-belt like disc, perhaps due to its companion star sweeping away this material. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The star is named after an important city in Morocco that bridged the Spanish and Arab worlds. The planets are named after famous Andalusian astronomers.
  • HD 154857 System - Template:HD 154857 System

Clarified NeptuniansEdit

  • Gliese 876 System - Ross 780 is also known as Gl 876 and the flare star IL Aquarii. Very nearby quadruple planet system and the first Red Dwarf found to have planets. The innermost planet (d, Hot Superterran, rocky-water) was the first found rocky planet around a normal star (the first true Super-Earth, at epistellar distances). The outer three planets c (Warm Saturnian), b (Warm Jovian), and e (Cold Neptunian) are in 1:2:4 (30d/60d/120d) resonance (the exoplanet resonance and first triple-resonant planets discovered). The outermost planet has a Mercury-like orbit. Planet b is second discovered by ELODIE after 51 Peg b and the second to have its mass exactly measured and the first to have done so by astrometry.
  • Gliese 436 System - AC+27°28217 is best known as Gliese 436. The second known red dwarf planetary system. Contains one of the first Neptunians discovered and a few potential planets. The star is about half the sun's mass. It is over 11 Billion years old and may be a part of the old disk of the Milky Way. Planet b temporarily later found to be the smallest exoplanet (about Uranus' diameter, though over 50% its mass) known to transit its host star and is currently the nearest (33 ly). Its temperature (712K) was measured to be higher than what it would be purely from radiation (520K), perhaps due to a greenhouse effect, somewhat higher than Venus. It was originally thought to have a layer of "hot ice", water solidified due to high pressures. It turned out that it was larger than thought and hot ice was not needed. It could still be a rocky super-Earth. It was later found to have a remarkably low levels of Methane and high levels of Carbon Monoxide for its 800K temperature. Possible explanations include Methane being changed into hydrocarbon polymers due to its star's ultraviolet radiation, CO being drafted upwards with winds, or observational defects. Later, due to lack of detection of chemical signatures through the backlit atmosphere, it was concluded that high altitude clouds, perhaps made of potassium chloride or zink sulphide dust, were blocking the detection. This could be the first detection of clouds of a Neptunian. An alternate theory is that the atmosphere is filled with heavy compounds, such as water, carbond dioxide, which would compress the atmosphere and make it difficult to detect. After detection of a huge comet-like tail of Hydrogen trailing and wrapping around its orbit led to the most recent theory that it lost its Hydrogen to uv radiation and was left with a Helium dominated atmosphere with plenty of CO instead of CH4. It's significant eccentricity suggests a possible neighboring planet. Planet c was announced to be the smallest known exoplanet (1.5 Earth's diameter), but was later retracted because variations in transit timing of the first planet did not occur and the proposed orbit would be unstable. It is still thought that a second planet of some kind is possible in the system. Candidate UCF-1.01 was detected by a student in the UCF's astronomy department using the Spitzer Space Telescope. It is about 2/3 Earth's diameter (smaller than all but one confirmed exoplanet), orbits around its star in 1.5 days, and at 1000F may be a lava world without an atmosphere. UCF-1.02 also may exist. Both are thought to be about 1/3 as massive as the Earth, but are too small to get their mass measured and thus too small to be confirmed with present technology.
  • Gliese 777 System - Outer planet of the primary star was initially believed to be a Jupiter analog, but later found to be eccentric (its apastron is at Jupiter-like distance). Its second planet was the fourth Neptunian discovered and was announced with four other "second" planets in 2005.

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