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Dopplar Spectrometry Exoplanets

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Exoplanetary Scratchpad

[SysBP Img]

A list of planets discovered using the dopplar spectrometry method by team.

Geneva Extrasolar Planet Search ProgrammesEdit

Swiss based team (homepage) including Mayor, Naef, Pepe, Queloz, Santos, Udry. Use the ELODIE spectrometer. Found the first confirmed exoplanet using dopplar spectrometry and many others.

ELODIE DiscoveriesEdit

ELODIE (Wikipedia) is a spectrograph installed in the Haute-Provence Observatory in south-eastern France. It discovered the first confirmed exoplanet, 51 Peg b.

  • 51 Pegasi System - The star called 51 Pegasus is now known as Helvetios. Contains the first exo-planet around a normal star discovered and the first "Hot Jupiter" found, which is nicknamed "Bellerophon", and now called Dimidium. Star is about 50 ly located in the square of Pegasus, a G5 star somewhat larger and more massive than the Sun. The planet's discovery was incompatible with planetary system formation models, so they were tweaked to allow for planetary migration. It was also initially thought to be an anomaly or the stripped down core of a brown dwarf. Found to have supersonic winds that caused the eternal night-side hemisphere to be as hot as the day-side one. During its 20th anniversary, this planet became the first one's whose reflected visible light was detected. The technique involved looking at a star's visible spectrum, and then detecting a faint reflection of this spectra. Its actual mass (0.46 MJ) and inclination (9deg) were obtained as a result. The planet seems to have a larger radius and bright surface, rather typical for hot jupiters. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The star's name is Latin for a Celtic tribe that lived in Switzerland (the place where its planet was discovered) during the middle ages. The planet's name is Latin for "half" due to the fact its minimum mass is half as massive as Jupiter's.
  • Gliese 876 System - Ross 780 is also known as Gl 876 and the flare star IL Aquarii. Very nearby quadruple planet system and the first Red Dwarf found to have planets. The innermost planet (d, Hot Superterran, rocky-water) was the first found rocky planet around a normal star (the first true Super-Earth, at epistellar distances). The outer three planets c (Warm Saturnian), b (Warm Jovian), and e (Cold Neptunian) are in 1:2:4 (30d/60d/120d) resonance (the exoplanet resonance and first triple-resonant planets discovered). The outermost planet has a Mercury-like orbit. Planet b is second discovered by ELODIE after 51 Peg b and the second to have its mass exactly measured and the first to have done so by astrometry.
  • 14 Herculis System -

CORALIE DiscoveriesEdit

Located in La Silla Chili, used by the Geneva southern extrasolar planet search programme.

  • Gliese 86 System - Contains the first exoplanet discovered by CORALIE of the Geneva southern extrasolar planet search programme. A cloudless blue heavy jupiter and a white dwarf around an orange star.
  • HD 75289 System - A cloudy Hot Jupiter around an yellow dwarf star.
  • HD 130322 System - A cloudless blue jovian around an orange dwarf star discovered by the Coralie survey. Called a Hot Jupiter by its discoverers due to its low orbital period, it could also be thought of as a Warm Jupiter due to its relatively cooler temperature.
  • HD 192263 System - An early detected cloudless blue Jovian around an orange dwarf star.
  • Gliese 3021 System - Multiple star system with a planet.
  • HD 52265 System - Sunlike star 90 ly away in Monoceros with a planet. Star is 1.2 the Sun's radius, 1.3 its mass, and 2.5 BY old. The star is an ideal object of study for the interactions between stars and planets. One of the six extrasolar systems known to have planets to be first shown to also have a dust disk by Spitzer. Planet independently discovered by CORALIE and Carnegie teams and is at least a 1.09 MJ Jovian in a hot eccentric orbit. By analyzing sonic vibrations, oscillations in brightness, through astroseismology, the exact internal spin rate (12 days) and orientation of the star has been computed. Assuming the planet orbits along the star's equator, it's mass can be inferred to be 1.85 Jupiter's, calming some suspicions that it may be a brown dwarf.
  • HD 82943 System - Yellow dwarf with two large orbit-crossing Jovians locked in 1:2 orbital resonance that would span the inner solar system, which were disccovered by the Swiss team by 2001. The planets have nearly identical mass (1.8 MJ). Shown to have a dust disk by Spitzer.
  • HD 83443 System - A cloudy Hot Jupiter around an orange dwarf star.
  • HD 108147 System - Template:HD 108147 System
  • HD 168746 System - A dark Hot Jupiter around an yellow dwarf star.
  • HD 169830 System - Bright star with two eccentric planets known in 2003. One is likely too hot to have any clouds, while the other one is likely to sport white water cloud bands.

ESO CESEdit

European Space Organization discoveries using a Coude Echelle Spectrometer.

  • Iota Horologii System - Iota Horologii is a bright yellow dwarf star, also known as HR 810. Contains the first planet discovered with an ESA instrument. This is an Eccentric Jupiter (over twice Jupiter's mass) and orbits almost as far as the Earth does from the Sun. Because of the greater luminosity of its star (50% more than the Sun), this planet is also considered a Hot Jovian. Stability analysis indicates that Earth-sized trojan planets could exist around this planet's orbit. A dust disk was announced around this star in 2000, but was later retracted as being due to an instrument defect. Another planet was also proposed, but retracted. System has a low C/O ratio like the Solar System.

California & Carnegie Planet SearchEdit

Team responsible for discovering roughly half of all known exoplanets (Exoplanets.org). Geoff Marcy is the principle investigator. It is affiliated with the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. Systems discovered by this team and affiliates using dopplar radar include (among others):

  • 70 Virginis System - The second normal star found to have planets, which is the first Eccentric Giant discovered and the first discovered by the Carnegie team. Planet nicknamed "Goldilocks" because it was perceived as the first planet discovered in its star's Habitability Zone. It was found to be much further away from Earth than initially believed and the star thus brighter, so the planet is now known to be too hot to have habitable moons.
  • 47 Ursa Majoris System - (aka Ursae Majoris) Chalawan (aka 47 Ursae Majoris) is solar analog (G1 V, about the same age as the Sun) with 3 planets 46 ly away. One of earliest systems discovered. Taphao Thong (b, 2.5 MJ, 2.1 AU) and Taphao Kaew (c, 0.5 MJ, 3.6 AU) are in circular orbits at asteroid-belt like distances, while planet d (1.6 MJ, 11.6 AU) is in a distant more eccentric orbit (0.16, 9.6-13 AU). Planet b was the first found to have a circular orbit beyond the habitable zone. The discovery of planet c made the system the first multiplanet system whose planets have circular orbits, and b and c are rough Jupiter-Saturn analogs in relative size and positions. Their existence was in doubt until planet d was discovered. Planet d has not yet completed a full year (38.4 years) yet since its discovery (it cannot be named yet), but is the furthest out planet discovered with the dopplar spectrometry method. Studies have shown a terrestrial planet could only form in the innermost part of the habitable zone. Several transmissions have been sent to the star system. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Star named after a Thai crocodile asterism and its planets are associated with two sisters associated with this legend. Taphao Thong was captured by the crocodile, while her sister Taphao Kaew married the one who rescued her.
  • Tau Bootis System - Contains one of the first four discovered Hot Jupiters, which was one of the largest, hottest, closest in (P = 3.3d, a = 0.05) of the earlier discovered ones and the closest known at the time and is today one of the brightest planets known. It was immediately recognized to have tidally locked its star's rotation period. The star (also known as HR 5185) is nearby (50 ly), 1.5 times as massive as the sun. The planet does not transit its star, but is one of the brightest planets known. Several attempts to detect light were declared, but then refuted. In one such attempt by British astronomers, it was nicknamed the "Millenium Planet", and light was thought to have been detected (thought to be a first) by subtracting its star's light, giving an inclination of 29deg, mass of 8 MJ, and size of 1.8 RJ, and blue-green color. NASA's Spitzers later was thought to have detected it (again, a believed first, considering visually detected ones were planetary "candidates"). It was finally detected later by observing CO lines produced by reflected light through its atmosphere, yielding a mass of 6 MJ and inclination of 44F. Water was later also detected in its atmosphere in the near infra-red, the first for any non-transiting exo-planet. The temperature was unexpectedly found to be cooler at the upper levels, unlike many other hot Jupiters (strong ultraviolet radiation are thought to destroy the compounds responsible for creating thermal inversions in this case). The star was the first to have its magnetosphere detected (which envelopes the planet) and also the first known to magnetically flip like the Sun (flips once every Earth year, vs the Sun's 11 years). One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU, but the only one whose chosen name was rejected because it did not conform to IAU's naming standards.
  • Rho Cancri System - (aka 55 Cancri) Copernicus is also known as Rho Cancri, 55 Cancri, Rho1 Cancri, HR 3522, Gl 324, and HD 75732. Wide binary star consisting of a sun-like primary (A, though super metal rich) and a red-dwarf secondary (B) separated by 1,100 AU, 41 light years away. Star A contains five exoplanets, the first system found with four or five planets. It has three tightly packed eccentric planets close in to the star, including planet Jannsen (e, hot Super Earth/Neptunian), Galileo (b, warm Jupiter), and Brahe (c, hot Saturn), followed by an eccentric Saturn in the habitable zone (Harriot, f) and a Jupiter analog, Lippershey (d). Planet e was heralded as the first Neptunian discovered. It was later found to be the shortest-period planet discovered (18 hours) and to transit. Its density was measured and determined to be rocky, and thus re-dubbed the first Super-Earth discovered. It was then the first super-Earth to have its light detected (by Spitzer in the infrared). The planet has about half of Neptune's mass, but is Earth-like in size and density (2.17 Earth Radius). Studies taking into account the composition of the star suggested that it was largely made of diamond, with graphite at the surface (the first diamond planet around a Sunlike star), and the first terrestrial found with fundamentally different surface composition and processes than Earth. This was later refuted when it turned out there wasn't as much carbon in the parent star as believed. Earlier studies that assumed an Earth-like composition suggested that it would be covered with an ocean of super-critical water. The brightness of the planet was found to have raised dramatically, possibly the aftermath of cloud cover due to a volcanic eruption. The brightness of the star (also closest known to transit and only known naked eye star to do so) makes it more easily studied than other hot super Earths. It was found to be dark and its sun-facing side hot enough to melt metal. It became the first super Earth to have its atmospheric composition measured (mostly hydrogen and helium with hints of hydrogen cyanide which would only dominate in a carbon-rich environment and no traces of water vapor) and temperature mapped, and the large hemispherical temperature differences suggest little atmosphere to transport heat. Planet b (one of the original 4 Hot Jupiters discovered) is the first "warm Jupiter" found to have a puffed up atmosphere and it probably at the outer limit from the star at which a planet can lose its atmosphere in this way. Its outer atmosphere skims the surface of the star, which was detected when attempting to detect an atmosphere around transiting Janssen. The strong interaction between planets Galileo and Brahe can be detected in measurements, and it took a while to find a fit that would allow them to survive over long periods of time. Harriot is a very eccentric Saturnian in the habitable zone. Planet d is a super jovian at Jupiter-like distances, which was the first found at true Jupiter distances and still the exoplanet discovered with dopplar spectrometry with the largest known semi-major axis. It was first thought to be circular, then eccentric, and then circular again. The distant outer star causes Lippershey's axis to flip on its axis every million years. Lippershey in turn causes the other planets to flip, including its star. The axis tilt of transiting planet e should be determined at some point. "Bode's law" predicts four undiscovered planets. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU.
  • Upsilon Andromedae System - Titawin (Upsilon Andromeadae) is a nearby (44 ly) multi-star system which is the first multiplanet system found around a main sequence star or a multi-star system. The main star around which the planets orbit is a yellow-white star somewhat younger than the sun and its companion is a red dwarf in a wide orbit. It is one of the most well studied non-transiting star systems. Roaster Saffar (b, 0.05 au, 0.62 MJ, e=0.013, and the nearest true Hot Jupiter to Earth) is nicknamed the Fire and Ice Planet because it is hot on one side and cold on the other. The hottest parts of the planet are near the trailing side terminator at the equator, due to high velocity winds transporting heat to the night side. This is 80deg offset from the starward pole and a much greater offset than other observed hot Jupiters. This threw astronomers off and caused them to doubt the wind-theory, though later observations of other planets have shown that winds indeed can travel fast enough to cause this. Stability studies and observations suggest its diameter is 1.8 DJ, rather large for a planet its age. The middle planets Samh (c, 0.83 au, 1.8 MJ, initially thought to possibly be a brown dwarf star, e=0.224) and Majriti (d, 2.5 au, 10.2 MJ, e=0.26) have had their inclinations and masses determined with astrometry, the first determination of relative inclinations of exoplanets. They are very eccentric and highly inclined to each other (30 deg). Planet scattering was thought to be a source until the outermost planet was discovered. This is planet e (5.2 au, 1.05 MJ, e = 0.005), which is the most Jupiter-like exoplanet known, and is in 3:1 resonance with planet d. Planet c is in the habitable zone, though any habitable moons would see drastic temperature swings. The star appears to have no Kuiper-belt like disc, perhaps due to its companion star sweeping away this material. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The star is named after an important city in Morocco that bridged the Spanish and Arab worlds. The planets are named after famous Andalusian astronomers.
  • 16 Cygni System - A hierarchical triple star system. Has one of the first highly eccentric Jovians discovered around the "outer" star B. Recent calculations show that a short period planet could exist around the same star, but none up to as large as Neptune could exist elsewhere. Kepler has performed astroseismology on stars A and B.
  • Gliese 876 System - Ross 780 is also known as Gl 876 and the flare star IL Aquarii. Very nearby quadruple planet system and the first Red Dwarf found to have planets. The innermost planet (d, Hot Superterran, rocky-water) was the first found rocky planet around a normal star (the first true Super-Earth, at epistellar distances). The outer three planets c (Warm Saturnian), b (Warm Jovian), and e (Cold Neptunian) are in 1:2:4 (30d/60d/120d) resonance (the exoplanet resonance and first triple-resonant planets discovered). The outermost planet has a Mercury-like orbit. Planet b is second discovered by ELODIE after 51 Peg b and the second to have its mass exactly measured and the first to have done so by astrometry.
  • HD 187123 System - Template loop detected: Template:HD 187123 System
  • HD 210277 System - Template:HD 210277 System
  • HD 195019 System - A cloudless blue jovian around an yellow dwarf star.
  • HD 217107 System - Contains the first discovered moderately eccentric Hot Jupiter. Its outer planet was suspected when the inner one was discovered due to its eccentricity (0.13) and confirmed with four other new multiplanet systems in 2005. The Outer planet c is highly eccentric and skirts the outer edge of the habitable zone.
  • HD 168443 System - Contains the first planet discovered whose minimum mass was near the planet/brown dwarf boundary which orbits at a asteroid belt-like distance. Also contains a second huge planet at least 7 times as massive as Jupiter orbiting at Mercury-like distances.
  • HD 16141 System - A yellow subgiant star around which the smaller of the first 2 Saturnians discovered (HD 46375 b was the other one) is in a Mercury-like orbit.
  • HD 46375 System - An orange subgiant around which the larger of the first two Saturnians discovered (79 Ceti b was the other one) orbits, which was the first "Epistellar Saturn" discovered.
  • BD-10 3166 System - Template:BD-10 3166 System
  • HD 52265 System - Sunlike star 90 ly away in Monoceros with a planet. Star is 1.2 the Sun's radius, 1.3 its mass, and 2.5 BY old. The star is an ideal object of study for the interactions between stars and planets. One of the six extrasolar systems known to have planets to be first shown to also have a dust disk by Spitzer. Planet independently discovered by CORALIE and Carnegie teams and is at least a 1.09 MJ Jovian in a hot eccentric orbit. By analyzing sonic vibrations, oscillations in brightness, through astroseismology, the exact internal spin rate (12 days) and orientation of the star has been computed. Assuming the planet orbits along the star's equator, it's mass can be inferred to be 1.85 Jupiter's, calming some suspicions that it may be a brown dwarf.
  • HD 12661 System - System with two Jovians that could support water clouds discovered in 2000 and 2002. The innermost one may be an "Eccentric Sulfurous Cloud Giant".
  • HD 92788 System - Template:HD 92788 System
  • HD 38529 System - Subgiant star with a cloudy Hot Jupiter, Brown Dwarf, and Red Dwarf companion. Simulations showed that Earth-sized planet could exist between the planet and brown dwarf, but that an asteroid belt can be expected there instead.
  • HD 196050 System - Multiple star system with a planet.
  • HD 216437 System - (aka Rho Indi) Eccentric water cloud giant around a yellow sub-giant star.
  • HD 160691 System - Template:HD 160691 System
  • HD 40979 System - Multiple star system with a planet.
  • HD 3651 System - 54 Piscium is a nearby orange dwarf star also known as HR 166, Gl 27, Hip 3093, HD 3651. Has an eccentric planet about the mass of Saturn orbiting at Mercury-like distances. A recently discovered faint distant T type brown dwarf 476 AU away was found to be the cause of this eccentricity, which was directly imaged.

1999 Batch AnnouncementsEdit

  • HD 37124 System - The fourth triple planet system discovered around a normal star, the last one announced with 4 other multiplanet components in 2005. A Sunlike star with Jovian planets that received Venus-like, Mars-like, and Asteroid Belt-like radition from their stars. Simulations showed that no terrestrial planets could form between the Venus-like and Mars-like Jovian planets.
  • HD 177830 System - Template:HD 177830 System
  • HD 134987 System - (aka 23 Librae) Near naked-eye star containing two planets, also known as HD 134987. The first is an eccentric giant at Venus-like distances and one of the first exoplanets discovered (1999). The second is a Jupiter analog (a = 5.8 AU, q = 5.3 AU, Q = 6.3 AU, e = 0.12, P = 14 EY, m = 0.8 MJ) discovered ten years later, indicating that enough time has passed to detect Jupiter-like planets.
  • HD 222582 System - Multiple star system with a planet.
  • HD 10697 System - (aka 109 Piscium) A white Water Cloud Jovian around an yellow sub-giant star at near Earth-like temperatures.

AFOE TeamEdit

Team using the Advanced Fiber-Optic Echelle spectrometer at the Whipple Observatory near Tucson Arizona. Website.

  • Rho Coronae Borealis System - Has the first planet discovered closer than its star's habitability zone but not a Hot Jupiter or an Eccentric Giant. This planet was the first detected by the AFOE team. A dust disk was detected the same year as the planet, making it the first system observed to have both.
  • HD 89744 System - Contains a highly eccentric planet which was recently studied to determine what other planets could exist in the system.

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