| Exoplanetary Scratchpad|
- Kepler-296 System - Red dwarf with a potentially habitable earth-sized planet. This planet currently has the highest earth-similarity index for planets around a red dwarf.
- Gliese 667 System - MLO 4 is most commonly known as Gliese 667 and also known as HR 6426 and HD 156384. A triple star system 23 light years away that contains planets in Scorpius. It was first cataloged as a binary star by astronomers at the old Melbourne Observatory (MLO) in Australia in 1867, so it was cataloged as MLO 4. It consisting of binary of orange dwarf stars about 12 AU apart (ranging from 5 to 20 AU), around which a distant red Dwarf C orbits (ranging from 56 to 215 AU). Star C is a dynamically packed planetary system, with at up to 7 unconfirmed super-Earth planets. The system became the nearest multistar system with planets when planet b (innermost, largest), a temperate super Earth planet (5.7 ME, 0.05 AU) was discovered, and is at the very inner edge of the most generous habitable zone. It became the poster child for an announcement of 32 exoplanets discovered by European astronomers working on the HARPs project and brought the total number of exoplanets to near 400. Planet c was later discovered near the inner edge of least generous habitable zone and is about the same size, and receives the same amount of stellar energy as the Earth. It was calculated that it likely no longer has a magnetic field that could protect its oceans from stellar radiation. Planets f and e were confirmed and also orbit in the Hz further out. Planet d is just beyond he HZ. Outermost planet, g (2.4 ME) is likely a frozen planet and the only one beyond Mercury-like distances. The multi-planet solution is somewhat lax and complicated and may need further confirmation. An even more unconfirmed planet h may be between b and c. A fourth stellar companion D is not gravitationally bound to the system.
- Kapteyn's Star System - Kapteyn's Star is also known as VZ Pic, Gl 191, HD 33793, and Cordoba Zone 5 hours 243. Kapteyn noticed that a star was missing from a catalog until its new position was found. Has the second highest proper motion of any stars. Also informally called Proxima Pictoris. Nearby large and old Red Dwarf star system and nearest Halo object thought to be a remnant of the nearest and largest global cluster, Omega Centauri, which is 16,000 ly away and shredded by the Milky way 11.5 BYA, and born while that was still a separate galaxy. 2.5 times as old as the Sun and born when the Universe was only 2 BYO. Was within 3 light years of Epsilon Eridani 31,500 years ago. Will be on the other side of the galaxy in 100 MY. Is a sub-dwarf or main sequence star. Has two planets. The first is at least a 4.5 ME Super Earth (0.16 AU) and is the oldest Potentially Habitable Planet. The second is over 7 ME and beyond the HZ (0.3 AU).
- Kepler-186 System - An M1 red dwarf found by Kepler to have five rocky planets. These planets are labelled b through f as you go further out. The smallest one, b, is only 8% larger than the Earth and the largest one d is 40% larger. The inner four are tidally locked, but possibly not the outer one. There might be one additional non-transiting planet inside the furthest one's orbit. The outermost planet f is the first Earth-sized planet found in the habitable zone and currently the smallest known Red Dwarf planet in the habitable zone. The planet does not receive as much heat as most PHPs though, so it is ranked low on the ESI.