Solar System Scratchpad

[Boiler Plate]
Saturnian System

Largest moon of Saturn and the only known moon to have a thick atmosphere. Only body known to have bodies of liquids on its surface other than the Earth, which are composed of hydrocarbons. Landed on by the Huygens probe and mapped by the Cassini orbiter.

Titan Web PagesEdit

Space BloggerEdit

Titan Places in the NewsEdit


  • Ontario Lacus - Largest hydrocarbon lake in Titan's southern hemisphere, near the poles, roughly the size and shape of Lake Ontario and shaped somewhat like a footprint. The lake is extremely shallow by Earth standards, only 0.5-3 meters thick, which were shown to rise and fall with the seasons. It is also extremely flat, with waves rising no more than a dime's width, indicating virtually non-existant winds at the time of the measurements. The first observed well developed river delta flows into it. Ethane has been identified in the lake.
  • Kraken Mare- The largest lake in Titan, located in the northern polar regions. A surface probe proposed for the Titan Saturn System Mission would splash down in this lake. It is five times the size of Lake Superior. Light was detected gleaning off of this lake.
  • Ligeia Mare - A northern hydrocarbon lake on Titan about the size of Lake Superior. It is the current proposed target for the Titan Mare Explorer lander. It was found to be deeper than Ontario Lacus in the southern hemisphere and probably formed via a different mechanism.
  • Punga Mare - Punga Mare

Sand Seas


  • Ksa Crater - A Medium sized (30 km) crater on Titan with a central peak and dark floor. First seen by Cassini in 2006, it is located to the north-west of Xanadu, and is separated from it by sand dunes.

Albedo Features

  • Xanadu Regio - Bright continent sized (about the size of Australia) region of Titan first observed by the Hubble Space Telescope. Sand dunes mark the boundary of it and the adjacent dark Shangri-La plains.
  • Hotei Regio - Frigid area on Titan in SE part of Xanadu that contains cryovolcanoes (Hotei Arcus). Ammonia frost was found to evaporate in this region, perhaps after having been belched up from the cryovolcanoes.

Suspected Volcanic Features

  • Ganesa Macula - Ganesa Macula is a dark feature on Saturn's moon Titan. It is named after the Hindu god Ganesha. Ganesa has been tentatively identified as a cryovolcanic dome, although stereo radar maps show it not to be a volcanic dome.
  • Sotra Facula - Feature at Titan initially believed to be of cryovolcanic origin, as it appears to have three large conical features. It is more likely that these have been formed by meteors and other weathering processes.

Titan In The NewsEdit

Huygens in the NewsEdit

New Results From Huygen's Lander (Jun 2007)Edit

Destination Titan: Mission to Titan Documentary on BBC (Apr 2011)Edit

Cassini Science in the NewsEdit

Titan's Mysterious Radio Wave (Jun 2007)Edit

Evidence For Tholin in Upper Atmosphere (May 2007)Edit

Titan Has Lake Effect Clouds (Dec 2008)Edit

Case for Cryovulcanism Presented (Dec 2008)Edit

Lakes Distributed Assymetrically (Jan 2009)Edit

Rain May Have Caused Southern Lakes to Appear (Feb 2009)Edit

Dunes Used to Map Wind Directions (Mar 2009)Edit

Virtual Flyovers on Titan Produced (Mar 2009)Edit

Also, Ganesa Macula has no volcanic dome

Ice Flows at Hotei Regio Support Cryovolcanism (Apr 2009)Edit

Titan More Oblong than Thought, May have Subsurface Methane Ocean (Apr 2009)Edit

Southern Cloud Not Dissipating into Fall (Jun 2009)Edit

X-Rays May Create DNA Building Blocks on Titan (Jun 2009)Edit

Ammonia in Cryovolcanism in Hotei Arcus Found (Aug 2009)Edit

Third of Moon Radar Mapped (Aug 2009)Edit

Presented to be Earthlike, with cryovolcanos, lakes, rivers, sand dunes, etc.

Largest Lake Found to be Smooth (Aug 2009)Edit

Alternate Explanation for Titan's Dunes (Aug 2009)Edit

Paper on Propane on Titan to be Published (Sep 2009)Edit

Glint off of Mare Kraken (Jun 2010)Edit

Largest Lake Kraken Gets Closeup (Jun 2010)Edit

Cassini Dips in Atmosphere (Jun 2010)Edit

Cassini to Skim Outer Atmosphere (Jul 2010)Edit

Ontario Lacus Levels Rise and Fall (Jul 2010)Edit

Ontario Lacus Surprisingly Shallow and Wave-Free (Dec 2010)Edit

See Ontario Lacus, Ligeia Mare

Sotra Facula Volcanism (Dec 2010)Edit

See Sotra Facula

Magnetic Environment to Be Sampled (Feb 2011)Edit

Cirrus-Like Clouds Spotted (Feb 2011)Edit

Seasonal Methane Rains Detected (Mar 2011)Edit

Giant Ghost Crater Possibly Found (Apr 2011)Edit

Titan Not Cryovolcanic After All (Apr 2011)Edit

Titan May Have Underground Water Ocean (May 2011)Edit

See Sotra Facula

Springtime on Titan (May 2011)Edit

Closeup Shot of Saturns Two Largest Moons (Jun 2011)Edit

See also Rhea

Dunes, Xanadu, Craters Appear in Image (Aug 2011)Edit

Cassini Photography in the NewsEdit

Video of Cassini Flyby in Outside In Imax Project (Mar 2011)Edit

See also Saturn, Mimas, Enceladus, Titan, Hyperion, Iapetus

Saturn, Titan, Enceladus, and Pandora Image (Mar 2011)Edit

See also Saturn, Enceladus, Pandora

Titan Saturn System in the NewsEdit

Mission that lost out to Jupiter-Europa mission, but put on backburner for possible future missions
Would have left by 2020 and used a Venus gravity assist to reach Saturn
Nasa would provide an orbiter (which would tour Saturn system before entering Titan orbit, including more Enceladus flybys), while ESA would provide a balloon and hydrocarbon lake lander

About to Choose Between Saturn and Jupiter Missions (Jan 2009)Edit

See Jupiter, Europa, Ganymede, Saturn, Titan, Enceladus

Titan Mission Will Wait Until After Europa Mission (Feb 2009)Edit

See Jupiter, Europa, Ganymede, Saturn, Titan, Enceladus

Titan Mare Explorer in the NewsEdit

Discovery Mission Narrowed to 3 (May 2011)Edit

Top three are MaRE at Titan, GEMS at Mars, and Comet Hopper at 46P/Wirtanen

Titan Mare Explorer Cheap Price tag Exhaulted (Jun 2011)Edit

See Mercury for Messenger, Moon for GRAIL, Europa

Hypothetical Missions in the NewsEdit

Detecting Thunder on Titan (2011)Edit

Earth Observations in the NewsEdit

First Global Map Created (1994)Edit

Titan Studies in the NewsEdit

Recreating Ice Found on Distant Worlds (Jun 2009)Edit

Tropical Rain Storm Detected From Earth(Aug 2009)Edit

Titan Missing Chemicals Could Point to Life (Jun 2010)Edit

Computer Generated Flyby of Ontario Lacus (Jul 2010)Edit

Titan Atmosphere Experiment Reveals Clues to Life's Origins (Jul 2010)Edit

Life's Building Blocks Raining From Atmosphere? (Jan 2011)Edit

Atmosphere Could Have Been Formed By Asteroid Strikes (May 2011)Edit

Particles From Phoebe Enter Atmosphere (Jul 2011)Edit

Feature ArticlesEdit

Recap (Jan 2011)Edit

See Ligeia Mare, Kraken Mare, Punga Mare

Five Findings (Jan 2011)Edit

See Kraken Mare, Sotra Facula

Book on Alien Weather (May 2011)Edit

See also Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Venus, Uranus, Neptune, Triton

Exobiology Update (May 2011)Edit

See also Mars, Venus, Enceladus, Europa, Themis, Cybele

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