Fandom

Andy's Wiki

Top 20 IAU Naming Candidates

1,625pages on
this wiki
Add New Page
Comments0 Share
Exoplanetary Scratchpad

[SysBP Img]

List of the top 20 planetary systems for IAU naming, and the first to be allowed to name.


Web PagesEdit

NewsEdit

Names AnnouncedEdit

ListEdit

As Appear on Web PageEdit

  • Ain System - Ain, also called Epsilon Tauri, is the brightest star in the Hyades Cluster (one of four giant stars in the cluster) and the first found to have a planet. Its name means "Eye" as in the Eye of the Bull, dimmer than Taurus' other eye, Aldebaron, and is 147ly away. The star is a 12.7 RS Red Clump Orange Giant and is the most massive one (2.7 MS) found at the time to host a planet. It used to be a class A main sequence star. The 7.8 MJ super Jovian, Amateru, orbits at 2 AU in a somewhat eccentric orbit. Since no other giant planets were detected in any of the other dwarf stars, that suggests giant planets are more common around giant stars. The age of the system was better known than any others at 625 MY, since it was a member of the cluster, and this put a precise upper limit for giant planet formation times. The harsh environment of the cluster would make planet building by core accretion difficult. One nearby star would appear as bright as Venus, while Ain would be as bright as the full moon from it. The star would appear 7 times as large as the Sun does from the planet. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The planet is named after a Japanese sun goddess, or a shrine dedicated to her.
  • Edasich System - A magnitude 3.1 orange-red giant star 101 ly away also known as Iota Draconis. It can be found in the sky by tracing a line from Polaris to the furthest "dipper" star. The next star over from the alpha star Thuban in the constellation. Contains the first planet (8.8 MJ) discovered orbiting a giant star (12 RS, 1.8 MS), Hypatia, proving planets at Earth-like distances can survive the evolution of their stars to giant phase. It is in an extremely eccentric orbit at 1.5 AU (0.7, 0.34-2.17 AU), which aided its detection as giant stars have pulsations which can mimic the presence of a planet. The habitable zone starts at 6.8 AU, so this planet is well within it during its entire orbit. Its radial velocity effects are only observable when it is at its nearest to the star. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The planet is named after a Neo-Platonic Greek astronomer.
  • Errai System - Also known as Gamma Cephei, an orange sub-giant (1.4 MS, 4.8 RS, 6.6 GY) with a 1.6 MJ "Sulfurous Cloud Giant", Tadmos, in an eccentric orbet centered at 2 AU (1.8 to 2.2 AU) and a red dwarf (0.5 MS) at 20 AU (11.9 to 28.3). Located 45 ly away at the northern tip of the constellation and one of the brightest stars near Polaris and will succeed Polaris as the North Star (closer to pole in 3000 AD, and at closest in 4000 AD). It is the first close in binary star found to have a planet. The planet was first detected in 1988, and could have been the first discovered, but wasn't confirmed until 2002. Could be called the first real exoplanet detected. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Named after an ancient Syrian city.
  • Fomalhaut System - Fomalhaut is also known as Piscis Austrini, 24 Piscis Austrini, Gl 881, HD 216956, and HR 8728. A triple star, the second brightest star known to have exoplanets. Star A is a white main sequence star about twice the Sun's mass and somewhat less than twice its radius. It was originally thought to be about 200 million years old, but now thought to be 400 MYO, and will turn into a giant in about a billion years. Its dust disk is observed in unprecedented detail. It appears reminiscent of the "Eye of Sauron" from the Lord of the Rings films. A planet suspected of causing a sharp gap in the ring was suspected and imaged, becoming the first visually detected and the first planet since Neptune to be predicted prior to its discovery. The planet, Dagon, orbits about 115 AU and is between Neptune and 3x Jupiter's mass in an eccentric orbit. Planet b was shown to deviate slightly from its predicted path, stirring up some controversy about the planets' existence. The Hubble instrument that detected it is damaged and will not be fixed, making it unobservable for a time. Later analysis of old Hubble data confirmed its existence. Material surrounding the planet has been imaged, rather than the planet itself, which its discoverers admit takes it off the directly imaged list. The planet is hurdling outward from the star in a highly elongated path and will encounter the inner edge of the outer belt in 2032, where icy debris will smash into its atmosphere (unless its orbit is highly inclined). No heat has been detected from the planet, which suggests it is sub-Jovian in mass and could be as small as Pluto, though this could be explained by dissipation from surrounding dust. Evidence for another planet "slicing" through the dust disk was also found, and it may have been responsible for planet b's elliptical orbit. The shape of the ring was put into focus by ALMA, 140 AU out, 16 AU wide, and 1/7th AU thick, placing limits on proposed shepherding exoplanets and showing them to be quite small (a couple times larger than Mars), perhaps why they weren't detected visually. Some proposed inner planets via effects of debris disk could be better interpreted as gas produced effects. The ring is believed to be continuously replenished by cometary collisions occurring every day. An estimated 260 Billion to 83 Trillion comets could exist in it, equivalent to what is in the Sun's Oort Cloud. Star B, an orange dwarf 0.91 ly away has no known disk. Star C, a recently identified Red Dwarf member of the system, located extremely far from the primary (2.5 ly), was also found to have its own disk. Previous interactions may have tilted Star A's disk. The star is a part of the Castor Moving Group. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The planet is named after a half fish Semitic god.
  • Pollux System - Pollux is also known as Beta Geminorum, HR 2990, HD 62509, and Gl 286. It was originally called Polydeuces by the Greeks, after the immortal twin. The brightest star in Geminorum, which suggests it may have used to be the second brightest four centuries ago, and is the 17th brightest star in the sky. It is an orange-red giant star (K0 III) 1.7 times the Sun's mass and 8.8 its diameter and 724 MYO. It is the nearest (34 ly) giant star to the Sun. Its spectra has been used as a stable anchor point since 1943. It has one of the weakest measured magnetic field of any star. Planet Thestias was confirmed in 2006 that was first suspected in 1993. It orbits 1.64 AU in a circular path and is at least 2.3 times as massive as Jupiter. This is much nearer than the present habitable zone, which is centered at 5.7 AU. This is the brightest star in the sky known to have a planet. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Named after the mother of Pollux, Leda. However, Leda is already taken as a moon of Jupiter, so a name derived from her father is used, which is sometimes used to refer to her or her sister..
  • Tonatiuh System - Tonatiuh (HD 149026) is a helium-fusing yellow giant star in the constellation of Camelopardalis. It is located 317 ly away from Earth. In 2003, an extrasolar planet (Meztli) was discovered in orbit around the star. The first planet (8.3 MJ, 0.95 AU) around a G giant star found during a survey by a Japanese team and the first planet found by a Japanese team. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Named after an Aztec god of the Sun and goddess of the Moon respectively.
  • Ran System - Ran (Epsilon Eridani) is the nearest single non-red dwarf star to the Sun, also known as HD 195019, Gl 144, and HR 1084. It is a member of the Ursa Major star association and close encounters to other stars is relatively common. One of the first stars found to have a dust disk, with several potential planets suspected in the gaps early on, and later on of the earliest nearest system with confirmed planets. Has an inner asteroid belt at 3 AU, Jovian planet AEger at 3.4 AU, outer asteroid belt at 20 AU, and Kuiper Belt at 35-100 AU. There is evidence of additional planets between the belts. Because the star is very chromospherically active, doubts were cast on planet's b's existence. Hubble then confirmed its existence with astrometrics and found to be orbiting in the plane of the dust disks, which supported the theory that planets are born from dust disks and yielded a precise mass of 1.5 MJ. The planet b was originally thought to be extremely eccentric (2-10 AU), but later discovery of the inner asteroid belt suggests it is more moderately eccentric so as not to cross the belt. It could still have high eccentricity if the outer belt was being fed with material from the outer belt though. Dinosaur-killing sized impacts would be frequent on any Earth-like planets, about once every 2 million years. One of 5 PICTURE-C targets selected for sub-orbital coronograph observation. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Star is named after a Norse goddess of the seas, while the planet after her husband, god of the ocean. A common sci fi system, including the original home of Star Trek Vulcans (though this moved to 40 Eridani) and Babylon 5.
  • Veritate System - Veritate is an orange giant star (mag 5.22, 2.2 MS) with a 5 MJ planet (Spe) at 0.83 AU. The planet is one of the closest in planets around an evolved star. Only Clump Giants were known to have planets prior to this. Found by a Japanese team. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The names for the stars are Latin "Veritate" (where there is truth) and "Spe" (where there is hope).
  • Helvetios System - The star called 51 Pegasus is now known as Helvetios. Contains the first exo-planet around a normal star discovered and the first "Hot Jupiter" found, which is nicknamed "Bellerophon", and now called Dimidium. Star is about 50 ly located in the square of Pegasus, a G5 star somewhat larger and more massive than the Sun. The planet's discovery was incompatible with planetary system formation models, so they were tweaked to allow for planetary migration. It was also initially thought to be an anomaly or the stripped down core of a brown dwarf. Found to have supersonic winds that caused the eternal night-side hemisphere to be as hot as the day-side one. During its 20th anniversary, this planet became the first one's whose reflected visible light was detected. The technique involved looking at a star's visible spectrum, and then detecting a faint reflection of this spectra. Its actual mass (0.46 MJ) and inclination (9deg) were obtained as a result. The planet seems to have a larger radius and bright surface, rather typical for hot jupiters. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The star's name is Latin for a Celtic tribe that lived in Switzerland (the place where its planet was discovered) during the middle ages. The planet's name is Latin for "half" due to the fact its minimum mass is half as massive as Jupiter's.
  • Musica System - Musica (18 Delphinis) A 5.5 Magnitude Yellow Giant Star 238 ly away with a planet (Arion) over 10 MJ at 2.6 AU and located just interior to the habitable zone. The planet is one of three planets around GK clump giants found by a Japanese observatory in 2008. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Star named for the latin word for music while the planet is named after a Greek poet and musician associated with a Dolphin.
  • Epsilon Tauri System - Ain, also called Epsilon Tauri, is the brightest star in the Hyades Cluster (one of four giant stars in the cluster) and the first found to have a planet. Its name means "Eye" as in the Eye of the Bull, dimmer than Taurus' other eye, Aldebaron, and is 147ly away. The star is a 12.7 RS Red Clump Orange Giant and is the most massive one (2.7 MS) found at the time to host a planet. It used to be a class A main sequence star. The 7.8 MJ super Jovian, Amateru, orbits at 2 AU in a somewhat eccentric orbit. Since no other giant planets were detected in any of the other dwarf stars, that suggests giant planets are more common around giant stars. The age of the system was better known than any others at 625 MY, since it was a member of the cluster, and this put a precise upper limit for giant planet formation times. The harsh environment of the cluster would make planet building by core accretion difficult. One nearby star would appear as bright as Venus, while Ain would be as bright as the full moon from it. The star would appear 7 times as large as the Sun does from the planet. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The planet is named after a Japanese sun goddess, or a shrine dedicated to her.
  • Ogma System - Ogma (HD 149026) is a yellow sub-giant star with the first known Saturn mass transiting planet, Smertrios. Also the first planet found with a dense core, leading credence to the core-accretion theory. Sometimes called a Super-Neptune, though it is not known if its core is rocky or icy. Also the first TEP discovered smaller than Jupiter. It was revealed to be as black as coal, twice as hot as any other known exoplanet, and hotter than some stars. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The star is named after a Celtic god of eloquence, writing, and great physical strength, while the planet was named after a Gallic deity of war.
  • Intercrus System - Intercrus (41 Lyncis, HD 81688) is a magnitude 5.4 orange giant in between a sub-giant and giant with a 2.7 MJ planet at 0.81 AU. Actually in Ursa Major due to a redraw of the boundaries in 1930 and also called HD 81688 to avoid confusion. Has an eccentric and inclined orbit around the galaxy center and it is uncertain if it is a thin disk member. Has a planet Arkas(2.7 MJ and 0.81 AU) that is one of three planets around GK clump giants found by a Japanese observatory. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The star was named for "between the legs" due to its position between the feet of Ursa Major and the planet after Callisto (Ursa Major)'s son, who is also Ursa Minor.
  • Libertas System - Libertas (Xi Aquilae) is a 4.7 magnitude, 1.16 MS, 10.4 RS, 4.6 BYO GK clump giant star (in helium burning phase) 184 ly away with a 2.8 MJ planet (Fortitudo) at 0.68 AU. Its spectrum is on the border between an orange and yellow star, and it used to be on the border between a white and blue main sequence star and has only 2/3 the metals as the Sun. The planet is one of three planets around GK clump giants found by a Japanese observatory, and the star is the brightest of the three host stars. When found, the planet has the shortest period (136d) of any found around evolved stars and it is possible that any planets closer in would have been consumed when the star expanded into a Red Giant. The star is very near Altair in Aquila. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Star and planet are latin for Liberty and Fortitude, as represented by an Eagle.
  • Cervantes System - Cervantes (Mu Arae) is a 6th magnitude Sunlike star close to becoming a Sub-Giant located 50 ly with four known planets. At first believed to be a system dominated by orbit crossing eccentric Super Jupiters. Instead, three Jovians orbit in roughly circular orbits at Earth-like (Rocinante, d), Mars-like (Quixote, b, in habitable zone), and Jupiter-like (Sancho, e) distances in addition to an inner (Dulcinea, c) Hot Neptune. Planet c was one of three Hot Neptunes or Hot Super Earths discovered around the same time. It was the first one announced, but it was still under scientific review at the time, so there remains controversy on what the actual first planet discovered of this class is. Initially thought to likely to be rocky because it had 2 known neighboring gas giants which may have stunted its growth. The characteristics of the planets in this system changed greatly as new planets were discovered, and included a re-ordering of their designations. Initially, the first planet b was thought to be highly eccentric. An outer planet was then detected, at the time dubbed "c" (though a full period hadn't yet been observed), and was thought to have an extremely high eccentricity so that the orbits of the two planets would cross. An innermost third planet then dubbed "d" was then detected. A new fit for the data then emerged, and it was found that the outermost planet was actually much less eccentric, and that there was a planet interior to planet b with almost half its period. The eccentricity of b was also reduced so that no planet criss-crossed another's anymore. It was decided to redesignate the planets in order of characterizations instead of by discovery, so the innermost Neptunian planet was re-dubbed "c" and the planets just interior and exterior to planet "b" were re-dubbed "d" and "e". The system became the second known 4-planet system. The innermost two Jovians are close enough so that they're unstable over short periods of time. If they were actually in 1:2 resonance, which almost fits the data, they would be much more stable. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Star is named after the author of Il Ingenioso Hildalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha and the planets after its characters, Quijote (main character), Dulcinea (love interest), Rocinante (horse), and Sancho (squire).
  • Tau Bootis System - Contains one of the first four discovered Hot Jupiters, which was one of the largest, hottest, closest in (P = 3.3d, a = 0.05) of the earlier discovered ones and the closest known at the time and is today one of the brightest planets known. It was immediately recognized to have tidally locked its star's rotation period. The star (also known as HR 5185) is nearby (50 ly), 1.5 times as massive as the sun. The planet does not transit its star, but is one of the brightest planets known. Several attempts to detect light were declared, but then refuted. In one such attempt by British astronomers, it was nicknamed the "Millenium Planet", and light was thought to have been detected (thought to be a first) by subtracting its star's light, giving an inclination of 29deg, mass of 8 MJ, and size of 1.8 RJ, and blue-green color. NASA's Spitzers later was thought to have detected it (again, a believed first, considering visually detected ones were planetary "candidates"). It was finally detected later by observing CO lines produced by reflected light through its atmosphere, yielding a mass of 6 MJ and inclination of 44F. Water was later also detected in its atmosphere in the near infra-red, the first for any non-transiting exo-planet. The temperature was unexpectedly found to be cooler at the upper levels, unlike many other hot Jupiters (strong ultraviolet radiation are thought to destroy the compounds responsible for creating thermal inversions in this case). The star was the first to have its magnetosphere detected (which envelopes the planet) and also the first known to magnetically flip like the Sun (flips once every Earth year, vs the Sun's 11 years). One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU, but the only one whose chosen name was rejected because it did not conform to IAU's naming standards.
  • Lich System - Lich (PSR B1257+12) is a millisecond pulsar 1000 ly away in Virgo around which the first confirmed exoplanets were detected. Has an innermost 2 Moon-sized planet Draugr (A or b, 0.19 AU, the least massive known exoplanet), a 4.3 ME planet Poltergeist (B or c) at 0.36 AU, and a 3.9 ME planet Phobetor (C or d) at 0.46 AU. Variations in the pulsar's 6.22 ms period led to the planets' discovery. Draugr and Poltergeist are near enough to each other to perturb each others orbits, and this was detected and used to prove they existed. The planets were designated with capitol letters before naming conventions were established, and A was discovered last and thus dubbed because it was closer. An outer Saturn sized planet was disproved, as was its successor Dwarf Planet hypothesis. The system may have an asteroid or comet belt. The planets may be second generation. So far, only one other pulsar has been found to have a planet. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The theme of the naming of this system is "undead" creatures, since a pulsar is an "undead" star. The star Lich is named after an undead creature that controls other undead creatures, Draugr is a Norse undead creature, Poltergeist is a "noisy ghost" in German, and Phobetor is a Greek deity of nightmares.
  • Titawin System - Titawin (Upsilon Andromeadae) is a nearby (44 ly) multi-star system which is the first multiplanet system found around a main sequence star or a multi-star system. The main star around which the planets orbit is a yellow-white star somewhat younger than the sun and its companion is a red dwarf in a wide orbit. It is one of the most well studied non-transiting star systems. Roaster Saffar (b, 0.05 au, 0.62 MJ, e=0.013, and the nearest true Hot Jupiter to Earth) is nicknamed the Fire and Ice Planet because it is hot on one side and cold on the other. The hottest parts of the planet are near the trailing side terminator at the equator, due to high velocity winds transporting heat to the night side. This is 80deg offset from the starward pole and a much greater offset than other observed hot Jupiters. This threw astronomers off and caused them to doubt the wind-theory, though later observations of other planets have shown that winds indeed can travel fast enough to cause this. Stability studies and observations suggest its diameter is 1.8 DJ, rather large for a planet its age. The middle planets Samh (c, 0.83 au, 1.8 MJ, initially thought to possibly be a brown dwarf star, e=0.224) and Majriti (d, 2.5 au, 10.2 MJ, e=0.26) have had their inclinations and masses determined with astrometry, the first determination of relative inclinations of exoplanets. They are very eccentric and highly inclined to each other (30 deg). Planet scattering was thought to be a source until the outermost planet was discovered. This is planet e (5.2 au, 1.05 MJ, e = 0.005), which is the most Jupiter-like exoplanet known, and is in 3:1 resonance with planet d. Planet c is in the habitable zone, though any habitable moons would see drastic temperature swings. The star appears to have no Kuiper-belt like disc, perhaps due to its companion star sweeping away this material. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The star is named after an important city in Morocco that bridged the Spanish and Arab worlds. The planets are named after famous Andalusian astronomers.
  • 55 Cancri System - Copernicus is also known as Rho Cancri, 55 Cancri, Rho1 Cancri, HR 3522, Gl 324, and HD 75732. Wide binary star consisting of a sun-like primary (A, though super metal rich) and a red-dwarf secondary (B) separated by 1,100 AU, 41 light years away. Star A contains five exoplanets, the first system found with four or five planets. It has three tightly packed eccentric planets close in to the star, including planet Jannsen (e, hot Super Earth/Neptunian), Galileo (b, warm Jupiter), and Brahe (c, hot Saturn), followed by an eccentric Saturn in the habitable zone (Harriot, f) and a Jupiter analog, Lippershey (d). Planet e was heralded as the first Neptunian discovered. It was later found to be the shortest-period planet discovered (18 hours) and to transit. Its density was measured and determined to be rocky, and thus re-dubbed the first Super-Earth discovered. It was then the first super-Earth to have its light detected (by Spitzer in the infrared). The planet has about half of Neptune's mass, but is Earth-like in size and density (2.17 Earth Radius). Studies taking into account the composition of the star suggested that it was largely made of diamond, with graphite at the surface (the first diamond planet around a Sunlike star), and the first terrestrial found with fundamentally different surface composition and processes than Earth. This was later refuted when it turned out there wasn't as much carbon in the parent star as believed. Earlier studies that assumed an Earth-like composition suggested that it would be covered with an ocean of super-critical water. The brightness of the planet was found to have raised dramatically, possibly the aftermath of cloud cover due to a volcanic eruption. The brightness of the star (also closest known to transit and only known naked eye star to do so) makes it more easily studied than other hot super Earths. It was found to be dark and its sun-facing side hot enough to melt metal. It became the first super Earth to have its atmospheric composition measured (mostly hydrogen and helium with hints of hydrogen cyanide which would only dominate in a carbon-rich environment and no traces of water vapor) and temperature mapped, and the large hemispherical temperature differences suggest little atmosphere to transport heat. Planet b (one of the original 4 Hot Jupiters discovered) is the first "warm Jupiter" found to have a puffed up atmosphere and it probably at the outer limit from the star at which a planet can lose its atmosphere in this way. Its outer atmosphere skims the surface of the star, which was detected when attempting to detect an atmosphere around transiting Janssen. The strong interaction between planets Galileo and Brahe can be detected in measurements, and it took a while to find a fit that would allow them to survive over long periods of time. Harriot is a very eccentric Saturnian in the habitable zone. Planet d is a super jovian at Jupiter-like distances, which was the first found at true Jupiter distances and still the exoplanet discovered with dopplar spectrometry with the largest known semi-major axis. It was first thought to be circular, then eccentric, and then circular again. The distant outer star causes Lippershey's axis to flip on its axis every million years. Lippershey in turn causes the other planets to flip, including its star. The axis tilt of transiting planet e should be determined at some point. "Bode's law" predicts four undiscovered planets. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU.
  • Chalawan System - Chalawan (aka 47 Ursae Majoris) is solar analog (G1 V, about the same age as the Sun) with 3 planets 46 ly away. One of earliest systems discovered. Taphao Thong (b, 2.5 MJ, 2.1 AU) and Taphao Kaew (c, 0.5 MJ, 3.6 AU) are in circular orbits at asteroid-belt like distances, while planet d (1.6 MJ, 11.6 AU) is in a distant more eccentric orbit (0.16, 9.6-13 AU). Planet b was the first found to have a circular orbit beyond the habitable zone. The discovery of planet c made the system the first multiplanet system whose planets have circular orbits, and b and c are rough Jupiter-Saturn analogs in relative size and positions. Their existence was in doubt until planet d was discovered. Planet d has not yet completed a full year (38.4 years) yet since its discovery (it cannot be named yet), but is the furthest out planet discovered with the dopplar spectrometry method. Studies have shown a terrestrial planet could only form in the innermost part of the habitable zone. Several transmissions have been sent to the star system. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Star named after a Thai crocodile asterism and its planets are associated with two sisters associated with this legend. Taphao Thong was captured by the crocodile, while her sister Taphao Kaew married the one who rescued her.
  • Fafnir System - Fafnir (42 Draconis) is a magnitude 4.8 orange giant star with an eccentric (0.38) 4 MJ planet at 1.2 AU away named Orbitar. The star has almost exactly the same mass as the Sun and a radius 22 times bigger. It is metal poor and 9.5 BYO. It is 315ly away and is currently the southern pole star (because of its retrograde motion, Phi Draconis is an alternative) of Venus . One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The star is named after a figure in Norse mythology who turned into a Dragon, while its planet is a contrived word meant to pay homage to launch and orbital operations of NASA.

By MagnitudeEdit

2nd Magnitude

  • Pollux System - Pollux is also known as Beta Geminorum, HR 2990, HD 62509, and Gl 286. It was originally called Polydeuces by the Greeks, after the immortal twin. The brightest star in Geminorum, which suggests it may have used to be the second brightest four centuries ago, and is the 17th brightest star in the sky. It is an orange-red giant star (K0 III) 1.7 times the Sun's mass and 8.8 its diameter and 724 MYO. It is the nearest (34 ly) giant star to the Sun. Its spectra has been used as a stable anchor point since 1943. It has one of the weakest measured magnetic field of any star. Planet Thestias was confirmed in 2006 that was first suspected in 1993. It orbits 1.64 AU in a circular path and is at least 2.3 times as massive as Jupiter. This is much nearer than the present habitable zone, which is centered at 5.7 AU. This is the brightest star in the sky known to have a planet. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Named after the mother of Pollux, Leda. However, Leda is already taken as a moon of Jupiter, so a name derived from her father is used, which is sometimes used to refer to her or her sister..
  • Fomalhaut System - Fomalhaut is also known as Piscis Austrini, 24 Piscis Austrini, Gl 881, HD 216956, and HR 8728. A triple star, the second brightest star known to have exoplanets. Star A is a white main sequence star about twice the Sun's mass and somewhat less than twice its radius. It was originally thought to be about 200 million years old, but now thought to be 400 MYO, and will turn into a giant in about a billion years. Its dust disk is observed in unprecedented detail. It appears reminiscent of the "Eye of Sauron" from the Lord of the Rings films. A planet suspected of causing a sharp gap in the ring was suspected and imaged, becoming the first visually detected and the first planet since Neptune to be predicted prior to its discovery. The planet, Dagon, orbits about 115 AU and is between Neptune and 3x Jupiter's mass in an eccentric orbit. Planet b was shown to deviate slightly from its predicted path, stirring up some controversy about the planets' existence. The Hubble instrument that detected it is damaged and will not be fixed, making it unobservable for a time. Later analysis of old Hubble data confirmed its existence. Material surrounding the planet has been imaged, rather than the planet itself, which its discoverers admit takes it off the directly imaged list. The planet is hurdling outward from the star in a highly elongated path and will encounter the inner edge of the outer belt in 2032, where icy debris will smash into its atmosphere (unless its orbit is highly inclined). No heat has been detected from the planet, which suggests it is sub-Jovian in mass and could be as small as Pluto, though this could be explained by dissipation from surrounding dust. Evidence for another planet "slicing" through the dust disk was also found, and it may have been responsible for planet b's elliptical orbit. The shape of the ring was put into focus by ALMA, 140 AU out, 16 AU wide, and 1/7th AU thick, placing limits on proposed shepherding exoplanets and showing them to be quite small (a couple times larger than Mars), perhaps why they weren't detected visually. Some proposed inner planets via effects of debris disk could be better interpreted as gas produced effects. The ring is believed to be continuously replenished by cometary collisions occurring every day. An estimated 260 Billion to 83 Trillion comets could exist in it, equivalent to what is in the Sun's Oort Cloud. Star B, an orange dwarf 0.91 ly away has no known disk. Star C, a recently identified Red Dwarf member of the system, located extremely far from the primary (2.5 ly), was also found to have its own disk. Previous interactions may have tilted Star A's disk. The star is a part of the Castor Moving Group. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The planet is named after a half fish Semitic god.

4th Magnitude

  • Errai System - Also known as Gamma Cephei, an orange sub-giant (1.4 MS, 4.8 RS, 6.6 GY) with a 1.6 MJ "Sulfurous Cloud Giant", Tadmos, in an eccentric orbet centered at 2 AU (1.8 to 2.2 AU) and a red dwarf (0.5 MS) at 20 AU (11.9 to 28.3). Located 45 ly away at the northern tip of the constellation and one of the brightest stars near Polaris and will succeed Polaris as the North Star (closer to pole in 3000 AD, and at closest in 4000 AD). It is the first close in binary star found to have a planet. The planet was first detected in 1988, and could have been the first discovered, but wasn't confirmed until 2002. Could be called the first real exoplanet detected. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Named after an ancient Syrian city.
  • Edasich System - A magnitude 3.1 orange-red giant star 101 ly away also known as Iota Draconis. It can be found in the sky by tracing a line from Polaris to the furthest "dipper" star. The next star over from the alpha star Thuban in the constellation. Contains the first planet (8.8 MJ) discovered orbiting a giant star (12 RS, 1.8 MS), Hypatia, proving planets at Earth-like distances can survive the evolution of their stars to giant phase. It is in an extremely eccentric orbit at 1.5 AU (0.7, 0.34-2.17 AU), which aided its detection as giant stars have pulsations which can mimic the presence of a planet. The habitable zone starts at 6.8 AU, so this planet is well within it during its entire orbit. Its radial velocity effects are only observable when it is at its nearest to the star. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The planet is named after a Neo-Platonic Greek astronomer.
  • Ain System - Ain, also called Epsilon Tauri, is the brightest star in the Hyades Cluster (one of four giant stars in the cluster) and the first found to have a planet. Its name means "Eye" as in the Eye of the Bull, dimmer than Taurus' other eye, Aldebaron, and is 147ly away. The star is a 12.7 RS Red Clump Orange Giant and is the most massive one (2.7 MS) found at the time to host a planet. It used to be a class A main sequence star. The 7.8 MJ super Jovian, Amateru, orbits at 2 AU in a somewhat eccentric orbit. Since no other giant planets were detected in any of the other dwarf stars, that suggests giant planets are more common around giant stars. The age of the system was better known than any others at 625 MY, since it was a member of the cluster, and this put a precise upper limit for giant planet formation times. The harsh environment of the cluster would make planet building by core accretion difficult. One nearby star would appear as bright as Venus, while Ain would be as bright as the full moon from it. The star would appear 7 times as large as the Sun does from the planet. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The planet is named after a Japanese sun goddess, or a shrine dedicated to her.
  • Epsilon Eridani System - Ran (Epsilon Eridani) is the nearest single non-red dwarf star to the Sun, also known as HD 195019, Gl 144, and HR 1084. It is a member of the Ursa Major star association and close encounters to other stars is relatively common. One of the first stars found to have a dust disk, with several potential planets suspected in the gaps early on, and later on of the earliest nearest system with confirmed planets. Has an inner asteroid belt at 3 AU, Jovian planet AEger at 3.4 AU, outer asteroid belt at 20 AU, and Kuiper Belt at 35-100 AU. There is evidence of additional planets between the belts. Because the star is very chromospherically active, doubts were cast on planet's b's existence. Hubble then confirmed its existence with astrometrics and found to be orbiting in the plane of the dust disks, which supported the theory that planets are born from dust disks and yielded a precise mass of 1.5 MJ. The planet b was originally thought to be extremely eccentric (2-10 AU), but later discovery of the inner asteroid belt suggests it is more moderately eccentric so as not to cross the belt. It could still have high eccentricity if the outer belt was being fed with material from the outer belt though. Dinosaur-killing sized impacts would be frequent on any Earth-like planets, about once every 2 million years. One of 5 PICTURE-C targets selected for sub-orbital coronograph observation. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Star is named after a Norse goddess of the seas, while the planet after her husband, god of the ocean. A common sci fi system, including the original home of Star Trek Vulcans (though this moved to 40 Eridani) and Babylon 5.

5th Magnitude

  • Upsilon Andromedae System - Titawin (Upsilon Andromeadae) is a nearby (44 ly) multi-star system which is the first multiplanet system found around a main sequence star or a multi-star system. The main star around which the planets orbit is a yellow-white star somewhat younger than the sun and its companion is a red dwarf in a wide orbit. It is one of the most well studied non-transiting star systems. Roaster Saffar (b, 0.05 au, 0.62 MJ, e=0.013, and the nearest true Hot Jupiter to Earth) is nicknamed the Fire and Ice Planet because it is hot on one side and cold on the other. The hottest parts of the planet are near the trailing side terminator at the equator, due to high velocity winds transporting heat to the night side. This is 80deg offset from the starward pole and a much greater offset than other observed hot Jupiters. This threw astronomers off and caused them to doubt the wind-theory, though later observations of other planets have shown that winds indeed can travel fast enough to cause this. Stability studies and observations suggest its diameter is 1.8 DJ, rather large for a planet its age. The middle planets Samh (c, 0.83 au, 1.8 MJ, initially thought to possibly be a brown dwarf star, e=0.224) and Majriti (d, 2.5 au, 10.2 MJ, e=0.26) have had their inclinations and masses determined with astrometry, the first determination of relative inclinations of exoplanets. They are very eccentric and highly inclined to each other (30 deg). Planet scattering was thought to be a source until the outermost planet was discovered. This is planet e (5.2 au, 1.05 MJ, e = 0.005), which is the most Jupiter-like exoplanet known, and is in 3:1 resonance with planet d. Planet c is in the habitable zone, though any habitable moons would see drastic temperature swings. The star appears to have no Kuiper-belt like disc, perhaps due to its companion star sweeping away this material. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The star is named after an important city in Morocco that bridged the Spanish and Arab worlds. The planets are named after famous Andalusian astronomers.
  • Tau Bootis System - Contains one of the first four discovered Hot Jupiters, which was one of the largest, hottest, closest in (P = 3.3d, a = 0.05) of the earlier discovered ones and the closest known at the time and is today one of the brightest planets known. It was immediately recognized to have tidally locked its star's rotation period. The star (also known as HR 5185) is nearby (50 ly), 1.5 times as massive as the sun. The planet does not transit its star, but is one of the brightest planets known. Several attempts to detect light were declared, but then refuted. In one such attempt by British astronomers, it was nicknamed the "Millenium Planet", and light was thought to have been detected (thought to be a first) by subtracting its star's light, giving an inclination of 29deg, mass of 8 MJ, and size of 1.8 RJ, and blue-green color. NASA's Spitzers later was thought to have detected it (again, a believed first, considering visually detected ones were planetary "candidates"). It was finally detected later by observing CO lines produced by reflected light through its atmosphere, yielding a mass of 6 MJ and inclination of 44F. Water was later also detected in its atmosphere in the near infra-red, the first for any non-transiting exo-planet. The temperature was unexpectedly found to be cooler at the upper levels, unlike many other hot Jupiters (strong ultraviolet radiation are thought to destroy the compounds responsible for creating thermal inversions in this case). The star was the first to have its magnetosphere detected (which envelopes the planet) and also the first known to magnetically flip like the Sun (flips once every Earth year, vs the Sun's 11 years). One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU, but the only one whose chosen name was rejected because it did not conform to IAU's naming standards.
  • Xi Aquilae System - Libertas (Xi Aquilae) is a 4.7 magnitude, 1.16 MS, 10.4 RS, 4.6 BYO GK clump giant star (in helium burning phase) 184 ly away with a 2.8 MJ planet (Fortitudo) at 0.68 AU. Its spectrum is on the border between an orange and yellow star, and it used to be on the border between a white and blue main sequence star and has only 2/3 the metals as the Sun. The planet is one of three planets around GK clump giants found by a Japanese observatory, and the star is the brightest of the three host stars. When found, the planet has the shortest period (136d) of any found around evolved stars and it is possible that any planets closer in would have been consumed when the star expanded into a Red Giant. The star is very near Altair in Aquila. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Star and planet are latin for Liberty and Fortitude, as represented by an Eagle.
  • 42 Draconis System - Fafnir (42 Draconis) is a magnitude 4.8 orange giant star with an eccentric (0.38) 4 MJ planet at 1.2 AU away named Orbitar. The star has almost exactly the same mass as the Sun and a radius 22 times bigger. It is metal poor and 9.5 BYO. It is 315ly away and is currently the southern pole star (because of its retrograde motion, Phi Draconis is an alternative) of Venus . One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The star is named after a figure in Norse mythology who turned into a Dragon, while its planet is a contrived word meant to pay homage to launch and orbital operations of NASA.

6th Magnitude

  • 47 Ursae Majoris System - Chalawan (aka 47 Ursae Majoris) is solar analog (G1 V, about the same age as the Sun) with 3 planets 46 ly away. One of earliest systems discovered. Taphao Thong (b, 2.5 MJ, 2.1 AU) and Taphao Kaew (c, 0.5 MJ, 3.6 AU) are in circular orbits at asteroid-belt like distances, while planet d (1.6 MJ, 11.6 AU) is in a distant more eccentric orbit (0.16, 9.6-13 AU). Planet b was the first found to have a circular orbit beyond the habitable zone. The discovery of planet c made the system the first multiplanet system whose planets have circular orbits, and b and c are rough Jupiter-Saturn analogs in relative size and positions. Their existence was in doubt until planet d was discovered. Planet d has not yet completed a full year (38.4 years) yet since its discovery (it cannot be named yet), but is the furthest out planet discovered with the dopplar spectrometry method. Studies have shown a terrestrial planet could only form in the innermost part of the habitable zone. Several transmissions have been sent to the star system. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Star named after a Thai crocodile asterism and its planets are associated with two sisters associated with this legend. Taphao Thong was captured by the crocodile, while her sister Taphao Kaew married the one who rescued her.
  • 14 Andromedae System - Veritate is an orange giant star (mag 5.22, 2.2 MS) with a 5 MJ planet (Spe) at 0.83 AU. The planet is one of the closest in planets around an evolved star. Only Clump Giants were known to have planets prior to this. Found by a Japanese team. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The names for the stars are Latin "Veritate" (where there is truth) and "Spe" (where there is hope).
  • Mu Arae System - Cervantes (Mu Arae) is a 6th magnitude Sunlike star close to becoming a Sub-Giant located 50 ly with four known planets. At first believed to be a system dominated by orbit crossing eccentric Super Jupiters. Instead, three Jovians orbit in roughly circular orbits at Earth-like (Rocinante, d), Mars-like (Quixote, b, in habitable zone), and Jupiter-like (Sancho, e) distances in addition to an inner (Dulcinea, c) Hot Neptune. Planet c was one of three Hot Neptunes or Hot Super Earths discovered around the same time. It was the first one announced, but it was still under scientific review at the time, so there remains controversy on what the actual first planet discovered of this class is. Initially thought to likely to be rocky because it had 2 known neighboring gas giants which may have stunted its growth. The characteristics of the planets in this system changed greatly as new planets were discovered, and included a re-ordering of their designations. Initially, the first planet b was thought to be highly eccentric. An outer planet was then detected, at the time dubbed "c" (though a full period hadn't yet been observed), and was thought to have an extremely high eccentricity so that the orbits of the two planets would cross. An innermost third planet then dubbed "d" was then detected. A new fit for the data then emerged, and it was found that the outermost planet was actually much less eccentric, and that there was a planet interior to planet b with almost half its period. The eccentricity of b was also reduced so that no planet criss-crossed another's anymore. It was decided to redesignate the planets in order of characterizations instead of by discovery, so the innermost Neptunian planet was re-dubbed "c" and the planets just interior and exterior to planet "b" were re-dubbed "d" and "e". The system became the second known 4-planet system. The innermost two Jovians are close enough so that they're unstable over short periods of time. If they were actually in 1:2 resonance, which almost fits the data, they would be much more stable. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Star is named after the author of Il Ingenioso Hildalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha and the planets after its characters, Quijote (main character), Dulcinea (love interest), Rocinante (horse), and Sancho (squire).
  • HD 81688 System - Intercrus (41 Lyncis, HD 81688) is a magnitude 5.4 orange giant in between a sub-giant and giant with a 2.7 MJ planet at 0.81 AU. Actually in Ursa Major due to a redraw of the boundaries in 1930 and also called HD 81688 to avoid confusion. Has an eccentric and inclined orbit around the galaxy center and it is uncertain if it is a thin disk member. Has a planet Arkas(2.7 MJ and 0.81 AU) that is one of three planets around GK clump giants found by a Japanese observatory. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The star was named for "between the legs" due to its position between the feet of Ursa Major and the planet after Callisto (Ursa Major)'s son, who is also Ursa Minor.
  • HD 104985 System - Tonatiuh (HD 149026) is a helium-fusing yellow giant star in the constellation of Camelopardalis. It is located 317 ly away from Earth. In 2003, an extrasolar planet (Meztli) was discovered in orbit around the star. The first planet (8.3 MJ, 0.95 AU) around a G giant star found during a survey by a Japanese team and the first planet found by a Japanese team. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Named after an Aztec god of the Sun and goddess of the Moon respectively.
  • 51 Pegasi System - The star called 51 Pegasus is now known as Helvetios. Contains the first exo-planet around a normal star discovered and the first "Hot Jupiter" found, which is nicknamed "Bellerophon", and now called Dimidium. Star is about 50 ly located in the square of Pegasus, a G5 star somewhat larger and more massive than the Sun. The planet's discovery was incompatible with planetary system formation models, so they were tweaked to allow for planetary migration. It was also initially thought to be an anomaly or the stripped down core of a brown dwarf. Found to have supersonic winds that caused the eternal night-side hemisphere to be as hot as the day-side one. During its 20th anniversary, this planet became the first one's whose reflected visible light was detected. The technique involved looking at a star's visible spectrum, and then detecting a faint reflection of this spectra. Its actual mass (0.46 MJ) and inclination (9deg) were obtained as a result. The planet seems to have a larger radius and bright surface, rather typical for hot jupiters. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The star's name is Latin for a Celtic tribe that lived in Switzerland (the place where its planet was discovered) during the middle ages. The planet's name is Latin for "half" due to the fact its minimum mass is half as massive as Jupiter's.
  • 18 Delphinis System - Musica (18 Delphinis) A 5.5 Magnitude Yellow Giant Star 238 ly away with a planet (Arion) over 10 MJ at 2.6 AU and located just interior to the habitable zone. The planet is one of three planets around GK clump giants found by a Japanese observatory in 2008. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Star named for the latin word for music while the planet is named after a Greek poet and musician associated with a Dolphin.

7th Magnitude

  • 55 Cancri System - Copernicus is also known as Rho Cancri, 55 Cancri, Rho1 Cancri, HR 3522, Gl 324, and HD 75732. Wide binary star consisting of a sun-like primary (A, though super metal rich) and a red-dwarf secondary (B) separated by 1,100 AU, 41 light years away. Star A contains five exoplanets, the first system found with four or five planets. It has three tightly packed eccentric planets close in to the star, including planet Jannsen (e, hot Super Earth/Neptunian), Galileo (b, warm Jupiter), and Brahe (c, hot Saturn), followed by an eccentric Saturn in the habitable zone (Harriot, f) and a Jupiter analog, Lippershey (d). Planet e was heralded as the first Neptunian discovered. It was later found to be the shortest-period planet discovered (18 hours) and to transit. Its density was measured and determined to be rocky, and thus re-dubbed the first Super-Earth discovered. It was then the first super-Earth to have its light detected (by Spitzer in the infrared). The planet has about half of Neptune's mass, but is Earth-like in size and density (2.17 Earth Radius). Studies taking into account the composition of the star suggested that it was largely made of diamond, with graphite at the surface (the first diamond planet around a Sunlike star), and the first terrestrial found with fundamentally different surface composition and processes than Earth. This was later refuted when it turned out there wasn't as much carbon in the parent star as believed. Earlier studies that assumed an Earth-like composition suggested that it would be covered with an ocean of super-critical water. The brightness of the planet was found to have raised dramatically, possibly the aftermath of cloud cover due to a volcanic eruption. The brightness of the star (also closest known to transit and only known naked eye star to do so) makes it more easily studied than other hot super Earths. It was found to be dark and its sun-facing side hot enough to melt metal. It became the first super Earth to have its atmospheric composition measured (mostly hydrogen and helium with hints of hydrogen cyanide which would only dominate in a carbon-rich environment and no traces of water vapor) and temperature mapped, and the large hemispherical temperature differences suggest little atmosphere to transport heat. Planet b (one of the original 4 Hot Jupiters discovered) is the first "warm Jupiter" found to have a puffed up atmosphere and it probably at the outer limit from the star at which a planet can lose its atmosphere in this way. Its outer atmosphere skims the surface of the star, which was detected when attempting to detect an atmosphere around transiting Janssen. The strong interaction between planets Galileo and Brahe can be detected in measurements, and it took a while to find a fit that would allow them to survive over long periods of time. Harriot is a very eccentric Saturnian in the habitable zone. Planet d is a super jovian at Jupiter-like distances, which was the first found at true Jupiter distances and still the exoplanet discovered with dopplar spectrometry with the largest known semi-major axis. It was first thought to be circular, then eccentric, and then circular again. The distant outer star causes Lippershey's axis to flip on its axis every million years. Lippershey in turn causes the other planets to flip, including its star. The axis tilt of transiting planet e should be determined at some point. "Bode's law" predicts four undiscovered planets. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU.

9th Magnitude

  • HD 149026 System - Ogma (HD 149026) is a yellow sub-giant star with the first known Saturn mass transiting planet, Smertrios. Also the first planet found with a dense core, leading credence to the core-accretion theory. Sometimes called a Super-Neptune, though it is not known if its core is rocky or icy. Also the first TEP discovered smaller than Jupiter. It was revealed to be as black as coal, twice as hot as any other known exoplanet, and hotter than some stars. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The star is named after a Celtic god of eloquence, writing, and great physical strength, while the planet was named after a Gallic deity of war.

Invisible

  • PSR B1257+12 System - Lich (PSR B1257+12) is a millisecond pulsar 1000 ly away in Virgo around which the first confirmed exoplanets were detected. Has an innermost 2 Moon-sized planet Draugr (A or b, 0.19 AU, the least massive known exoplanet), a 4.3 ME planet Poltergeist (B or c) at 0.36 AU, and a 3.9 ME planet Phobetor (C or d) at 0.46 AU. Variations in the pulsar's 6.22 ms period led to the planets' discovery. Draugr and Poltergeist are near enough to each other to perturb each others orbits, and this was detected and used to prove they existed. The planets were designated with capitol letters before naming conventions were established, and A was discovered last and thus dubbed because it was closer. An outer Saturn sized planet was disproved, as was its successor Dwarf Planet hypothesis. The system may have an asteroid or comet belt. The planets may be second generation. So far, only one other pulsar has been found to have a planet. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The theme of the naming of this system is "undead" creatures, since a pulsar is an "undead" star. The star Lich is named after an undead creature that controls other undead creatures, Draugr is a Norse undead creature, Poltergeist is a "noisy ghost" in German, and Phobetor is a Greek deity of nightmares.

By Stellar ClassEdit

Horizontal Branch or Clump Giants (Helium Burning, Class GKR III)

  • Pollux System - Pollux is also known as Beta Geminorum, HR 2990, HD 62509, and Gl 286. It was originally called Polydeuces by the Greeks, after the immortal twin. The brightest star in Geminorum, which suggests it may have used to be the second brightest four centuries ago, and is the 17th brightest star in the sky. It is an orange-red giant star (K0 III) 1.7 times the Sun's mass and 8.8 its diameter and 724 MYO. It is the nearest (34 ly) giant star to the Sun. Its spectra has been used as a stable anchor point since 1943. It has one of the weakest measured magnetic field of any star. Planet Thestias was confirmed in 2006 that was first suspected in 1993. It orbits 1.64 AU in a circular path and is at least 2.3 times as massive as Jupiter. This is much nearer than the present habitable zone, which is centered at 5.7 AU. This is the brightest star in the sky known to have a planet. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Named after the mother of Pollux, Leda. However, Leda is already taken as a moon of Jupiter, so a name derived from her father is used, which is sometimes used to refer to her or her sister..
  • Edasich System - A magnitude 3.1 orange-red giant star 101 ly away also known as Iota Draconis. It can be found in the sky by tracing a line from Polaris to the furthest "dipper" star. The next star over from the alpha star Thuban in the constellation. Contains the first planet (8.8 MJ) discovered orbiting a giant star (12 RS, 1.8 MS), Hypatia, proving planets at Earth-like distances can survive the evolution of their stars to giant phase. It is in an extremely eccentric orbit at 1.5 AU (0.7, 0.34-2.17 AU), which aided its detection as giant stars have pulsations which can mimic the presence of a planet. The habitable zone starts at 6.8 AU, so this planet is well within it during its entire orbit. Its radial velocity effects are only observable when it is at its nearest to the star. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The planet is named after a Neo-Platonic Greek astronomer.
  • Ain System - Ain, also called Epsilon Tauri, is the brightest star in the Hyades Cluster (one of four giant stars in the cluster) and the first found to have a planet. Its name means "Eye" as in the Eye of the Bull, dimmer than Taurus' other eye, Aldebaron, and is 147ly away. The star is a 12.7 RS Red Clump Orange Giant and is the most massive one (2.7 MS) found at the time to host a planet. It used to be a class A main sequence star. The 7.8 MJ super Jovian, Amateru, orbits at 2 AU in a somewhat eccentric orbit. Since no other giant planets were detected in any of the other dwarf stars, that suggests giant planets are more common around giant stars. The age of the system was better known than any others at 625 MY, since it was a member of the cluster, and this put a precise upper limit for giant planet formation times. The harsh environment of the cluster would make planet building by core accretion difficult. One nearby star would appear as bright as Venus, while Ain would be as bright as the full moon from it. The star would appear 7 times as large as the Sun does from the planet. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The planet is named after a Japanese sun goddess, or a shrine dedicated to her.
  • Xi Aquilae System - Libertas (Xi Aquilae) is a 4.7 magnitude, 1.16 MS, 10.4 RS, 4.6 BYO GK clump giant star (in helium burning phase) 184 ly away with a 2.8 MJ planet (Fortitudo) at 0.68 AU. Its spectrum is on the border between an orange and yellow star, and it used to be on the border between a white and blue main sequence star and has only 2/3 the metals as the Sun. The planet is one of three planets around GK clump giants found by a Japanese observatory, and the star is the brightest of the three host stars. When found, the planet has the shortest period (136d) of any found around evolved stars and it is possible that any planets closer in would have been consumed when the star expanded into a Red Giant. The star is very near Altair in Aquila. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Star and planet are latin for Liberty and Fortitude, as represented by an Eagle.
  • 42 Draconis System - Fafnir (42 Draconis) is a magnitude 4.8 orange giant star with an eccentric (0.38) 4 MJ planet at 1.2 AU away named Orbitar. The star has almost exactly the same mass as the Sun and a radius 22 times bigger. It is metal poor and 9.5 BYO. It is 315ly away and is currently the southern pole star (because of its retrograde motion, Phi Draconis is an alternative) of Venus . One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The star is named after a figure in Norse mythology who turned into a Dragon, while its planet is a contrived word meant to pay homage to launch and orbital operations of NASA.
  • 14 Andromedae System - Veritate is an orange giant star (mag 5.22, 2.2 MS) with a 5 MJ planet (Spe) at 0.83 AU. The planet is one of the closest in planets around an evolved star. Only Clump Giants were known to have planets prior to this. Found by a Japanese team. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The names for the stars are Latin "Veritate" (where there is truth) and "Spe" (where there is hope).

Yellow-Orange Sub-Giants (Class GK III-IV)

  • Errai System - Also known as Gamma Cephei, an orange sub-giant (1.4 MS, 4.8 RS, 6.6 GY) with a 1.6 MJ "Sulfurous Cloud Giant", Tadmos, in an eccentric orbet centered at 2 AU (1.8 to 2.2 AU) and a red dwarf (0.5 MS) at 20 AU (11.9 to 28.3). Located 45 ly away at the northern tip of the constellation and one of the brightest stars near Polaris and will succeed Polaris as the North Star (closer to pole in 3000 AD, and at closest in 4000 AD). It is the first close in binary star found to have a planet. The planet was first detected in 1988, and could have been the first discovered, but wasn't confirmed until 2002. Could be called the first real exoplanet detected. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Named after an ancient Syrian city.

Main Sequence A Class

  • Fomalhaut System - Fomalhaut is also known as Piscis Austrini, 24 Piscis Austrini, Gl 881, HD 216956, and HR 8728. A triple star, the second brightest star known to have exoplanets. Star A is a white main sequence star about twice the Sun's mass and somewhat less than twice its radius. It was originally thought to be about 200 million years old, but now thought to be 400 MYO, and will turn into a giant in about a billion years. Its dust disk is observed in unprecedented detail. It appears reminiscent of the "Eye of Sauron" from the Lord of the Rings films. A planet suspected of causing a sharp gap in the ring was suspected and imaged, becoming the first visually detected and the first planet since Neptune to be predicted prior to its discovery. The planet, Dagon, orbits about 115 AU and is between Neptune and 3x Jupiter's mass in an eccentric orbit. Planet b was shown to deviate slightly from its predicted path, stirring up some controversy about the planets' existence. The Hubble instrument that detected it is damaged and will not be fixed, making it unobservable for a time. Later analysis of old Hubble data confirmed its existence. Material surrounding the planet has been imaged, rather than the planet itself, which its discoverers admit takes it off the directly imaged list. The planet is hurdling outward from the star in a highly elongated path and will encounter the inner edge of the outer belt in 2032, where icy debris will smash into its atmosphere (unless its orbit is highly inclined). No heat has been detected from the planet, which suggests it is sub-Jovian in mass and could be as small as Pluto, though this could be explained by dissipation from surrounding dust. Evidence for another planet "slicing" through the dust disk was also found, and it may have been responsible for planet b's elliptical orbit. The shape of the ring was put into focus by ALMA, 140 AU out, 16 AU wide, and 1/7th AU thick, placing limits on proposed shepherding exoplanets and showing them to be quite small (a couple times larger than Mars), perhaps why they weren't detected visually. Some proposed inner planets via effects of debris disk could be better interpreted as gas produced effects. The ring is believed to be continuously replenished by cometary collisions occurring every day. An estimated 260 Billion to 83 Trillion comets could exist in it, equivalent to what is in the Sun's Oort Cloud. Star B, an orange dwarf 0.91 ly away has no known disk. Star C, a recently identified Red Dwarf member of the system, located extremely far from the primary (2.5 ly), was also found to have its own disk. Previous interactions may have tilted Star A's disk. The star is a part of the Castor Moving Group. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The planet is named after a half fish Semitic god.

Yellow-White Dwarf

  • Upsilon Andromedae System - Titawin (Upsilon Andromeadae) is a nearby (44 ly) multi-star system which is the first multiplanet system found around a main sequence star or a multi-star system. The main star around which the planets orbit is a yellow-white star somewhat younger than the sun and its companion is a red dwarf in a wide orbit. It is one of the most well studied non-transiting star systems. Roaster Saffar (b, 0.05 au, 0.62 MJ, e=0.013, and the nearest true Hot Jupiter to Earth) is nicknamed the Fire and Ice Planet because it is hot on one side and cold on the other. The hottest parts of the planet are near the trailing side terminator at the equator, due to high velocity winds transporting heat to the night side. This is 80deg offset from the starward pole and a much greater offset than other observed hot Jupiters. This threw astronomers off and caused them to doubt the wind-theory, though later observations of other planets have shown that winds indeed can travel fast enough to cause this. Stability studies and observations suggest its diameter is 1.8 DJ, rather large for a planet its age. The middle planets Samh (c, 0.83 au, 1.8 MJ, initially thought to possibly be a brown dwarf star, e=0.224) and Majriti (d, 2.5 au, 10.2 MJ, e=0.26) have had their inclinations and masses determined with astrometry, the first determination of relative inclinations of exoplanets. They are very eccentric and highly inclined to each other (30 deg). Planet scattering was thought to be a source until the outermost planet was discovered. This is planet e (5.2 au, 1.05 MJ, e = 0.005), which is the most Jupiter-like exoplanet known, and is in 3:1 resonance with planet d. Planet c is in the habitable zone, though any habitable moons would see drastic temperature swings. The star appears to have no Kuiper-belt like disc, perhaps due to its companion star sweeping away this material. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The star is named after an important city in Morocco that bridged the Spanish and Arab worlds. The planets are named after famous Andalusian astronomers.
  • Tau Bootis System - Contains one of the first four discovered Hot Jupiters, which was one of the largest, hottest, closest in (P = 3.3d, a = 0.05) of the earlier discovered ones and the closest known at the time and is today one of the brightest planets known. It was immediately recognized to have tidally locked its star's rotation period. The star (also known as HR 5185) is nearby (50 ly), 1.5 times as massive as the sun. The planet does not transit its star, but is one of the brightest planets known. Several attempts to detect light were declared, but then refuted. In one such attempt by British astronomers, it was nicknamed the "Millenium Planet", and light was thought to have been detected (thought to be a first) by subtracting its star's light, giving an inclination of 29deg, mass of 8 MJ, and size of 1.8 RJ, and blue-green color. NASA's Spitzers later was thought to have detected it (again, a believed first, considering visually detected ones were planetary "candidates"). It was finally detected later by observing CO lines produced by reflected light through its atmosphere, yielding a mass of 6 MJ and inclination of 44F. Water was later also detected in its atmosphere in the near infra-red, the first for any non-transiting exo-planet. The temperature was unexpectedly found to be cooler at the upper levels, unlike many other hot Jupiters (strong ultraviolet radiation are thought to destroy the compounds responsible for creating thermal inversions in this case). The star was the first to have its magnetosphere detected (which envelopes the planet) and also the first known to magnetically flip like the Sun (flips once every Earth year, vs the Sun's 11 years). One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU, but the only one whose chosen name was rejected because it did not conform to IAU's naming standards.

Yellow Dwarf

  • 47 Ursae Majoris System - Chalawan (aka 47 Ursae Majoris) is solar analog (G1 V, about the same age as the Sun) with 3 planets 46 ly away. One of earliest systems discovered. Taphao Thong (b, 2.5 MJ, 2.1 AU) and Taphao Kaew (c, 0.5 MJ, 3.6 AU) are in circular orbits at asteroid-belt like distances, while planet d (1.6 MJ, 11.6 AU) is in a distant more eccentric orbit (0.16, 9.6-13 AU). Planet b was the first found to have a circular orbit beyond the habitable zone. The discovery of planet c made the system the first multiplanet system whose planets have circular orbits, and b and c are rough Jupiter-Saturn analogs in relative size and positions. Their existence was in doubt until planet d was discovered. Planet d has not yet completed a full year (38.4 years) yet since its discovery (it cannot be named yet), but is the furthest out planet discovered with the dopplar spectrometry method. Studies have shown a terrestrial planet could only form in the innermost part of the habitable zone. Several transmissions have been sent to the star system. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Star named after a Thai crocodile asterism and its planets are associated with two sisters associated with this legend. Taphao Thong was captured by the crocodile, while her sister Taphao Kaew married the one who rescued her.

Orange Dwarf (Class K V)

  • Epsilon Eridani System - Ran (Epsilon Eridani) is the nearest single non-red dwarf star to the Sun, also known as HD 195019, Gl 144, and HR 1084. It is a member of the Ursa Major star association and close encounters to other stars is relatively common. One of the first stars found to have a dust disk, with several potential planets suspected in the gaps early on, and later on of the earliest nearest system with confirmed planets. Has an inner asteroid belt at 3 AU, Jovian planet AEger at 3.4 AU, outer asteroid belt at 20 AU, and Kuiper Belt at 35-100 AU. There is evidence of additional planets between the belts. Because the star is very chromospherically active, doubts were cast on planet's b's existence. Hubble then confirmed its existence with astrometrics and found to be orbiting in the plane of the dust disks, which supported the theory that planets are born from dust disks and yielded a precise mass of 1.5 MJ. The planet b was originally thought to be extremely eccentric (2-10 AU), but later discovery of the inner asteroid belt suggests it is more moderately eccentric so as not to cross the belt. It could still have high eccentricity if the outer belt was being fed with material from the outer belt though. Dinosaur-killing sized impacts would be frequent on any Earth-like planets, about once every 2 million years. One of 5 PICTURE-C targets selected for sub-orbital coronograph observation. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Star is named after a Norse goddess of the seas, while the planet after her husband, god of the ocean. A common sci fi system, including the original home of Star Trek Vulcans (though this moved to 40 Eridani) and Babylon 5.

By Detection Technique and DiscoverersEdit

Pulsar Detection:

  • PSR 1257 12 System - Lich (PSR B1257+12) is a millisecond pulsar 1000 ly away in Virgo around which the first confirmed exoplanets were detected. Has an innermost 2 Moon-sized planet Draugr (A or b, 0.19 AU, the least massive known exoplanet), a 4.3 ME planet Poltergeist (B or c) at 0.36 AU, and a 3.9 ME planet Phobetor (C or d) at 0.46 AU. Variations in the pulsar's 6.22 ms period led to the planets' discovery. Draugr and Poltergeist are near enough to each other to perturb each others orbits, and this was detected and used to prove they existed. The planets were designated with capitol letters before naming conventions were established, and A was discovered last and thus dubbed because it was closer. An outer Saturn sized planet was disproved, as was its successor Dwarf Planet hypothesis. The system may have an asteroid or comet belt. The planets may be second generation. So far, only one other pulsar has been found to have a planet. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The theme of the naming of this system is "undead" creatures, since a pulsar is an "undead" star. The star Lich is named after an undead creature that controls other undead creatures, Draugr is a Norse undead creature, Poltergeist is a "noisy ghost" in German, and Phobetor is a Greek deity of nightmares.

Dopplar Spectrometry:

ELODIE
  • 51 Pegasi System - The star called 51 Pegasus is now known as Helvetios. Contains the first exo-planet around a normal star discovered and the first "Hot Jupiter" found, which is nicknamed "Bellerophon", and now called Dimidium. Star is about 50 ly located in the square of Pegasus, a G5 star somewhat larger and more massive than the Sun. The planet's discovery was incompatible with planetary system formation models, so they were tweaked to allow for planetary migration. It was also initially thought to be an anomaly or the stripped down core of a brown dwarf. Found to have supersonic winds that caused the eternal night-side hemisphere to be as hot as the day-side one. During its 20th anniversary, this planet became the first one's whose reflected visible light was detected. The technique involved looking at a star's visible spectrum, and then detecting a faint reflection of this spectra. Its actual mass (0.46 MJ) and inclination (9deg) were obtained as a result. The planet seems to have a larger radius and bright surface, rather typical for hot jupiters. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The star's name is Latin for a Celtic tribe that lived in Switzerland (the place where its planet was discovered) during the middle ages. The planet's name is Latin for "half" due to the fact its minimum mass is half as massive as Jupiter's.
California and Carnegie
  • 47 Ursae Majoris System - Chalawan (aka 47 Ursae Majoris) is solar analog (G1 V, about the same age as the Sun) with 3 planets 46 ly away. One of earliest systems discovered. Taphao Thong (b, 2.5 MJ, 2.1 AU) and Taphao Kaew (c, 0.5 MJ, 3.6 AU) are in circular orbits at asteroid-belt like distances, while planet d (1.6 MJ, 11.6 AU) is in a distant more eccentric orbit (0.16, 9.6-13 AU). Planet b was the first found to have a circular orbit beyond the habitable zone. The discovery of planet c made the system the first multiplanet system whose planets have circular orbits, and b and c are rough Jupiter-Saturn analogs in relative size and positions. Their existence was in doubt until planet d was discovered. Planet d has not yet completed a full year (38.4 years) yet since its discovery (it cannot be named yet), but is the furthest out planet discovered with the dopplar spectrometry method. Studies have shown a terrestrial planet could only form in the innermost part of the habitable zone. Several transmissions have been sent to the star system. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Star named after a Thai crocodile asterism and its planets are associated with two sisters associated with this legend. Taphao Thong was captured by the crocodile, while her sister Taphao Kaew married the one who rescued her.
  • Tau Bootis System - Contains one of the first four discovered Hot Jupiters, which was one of the largest, hottest, closest in (P = 3.3d, a = 0.05) of the earlier discovered ones and the closest known at the time and is today one of the brightest planets known. It was immediately recognized to have tidally locked its star's rotation period. The star (also known as HR 5185) is nearby (50 ly), 1.5 times as massive as the sun. The planet does not transit its star, but is one of the brightest planets known. Several attempts to detect light were declared, but then refuted. In one such attempt by British astronomers, it was nicknamed the "Millenium Planet", and light was thought to have been detected (thought to be a first) by subtracting its star's light, giving an inclination of 29deg, mass of 8 MJ, and size of 1.8 RJ, and blue-green color. NASA's Spitzers later was thought to have detected it (again, a believed first, considering visually detected ones were planetary "candidates"). It was finally detected later by observing CO lines produced by reflected light through its atmosphere, yielding a mass of 6 MJ and inclination of 44F. Water was later also detected in its atmosphere in the near infra-red, the first for any non-transiting exo-planet. The temperature was unexpectedly found to be cooler at the upper levels, unlike many other hot Jupiters (strong ultraviolet radiation are thought to destroy the compounds responsible for creating thermal inversions in this case). The star was the first to have its magnetosphere detected (which envelopes the planet) and also the first known to magnetically flip like the Sun (flips once every Earth year, vs the Sun's 11 years). One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU, but the only one whose chosen name was rejected because it did not conform to IAU's naming standards.
  • Upsilon Andromedae System - Titawin (Upsilon Andromeadae) is a nearby (44 ly) multi-star system which is the first multiplanet system found around a main sequence star or a multi-star system. The main star around which the planets orbit is a yellow-white star somewhat younger than the sun and its companion is a red dwarf in a wide orbit. It is one of the most well studied non-transiting star systems. Roaster Saffar (b, 0.05 au, 0.62 MJ, e=0.013, and the nearest true Hot Jupiter to Earth) is nicknamed the Fire and Ice Planet because it is hot on one side and cold on the other. The hottest parts of the planet are near the trailing side terminator at the equator, due to high velocity winds transporting heat to the night side. This is 80deg offset from the starward pole and a much greater offset than other observed hot Jupiters. This threw astronomers off and caused them to doubt the wind-theory, though later observations of other planets have shown that winds indeed can travel fast enough to cause this. Stability studies and observations suggest its diameter is 1.8 DJ, rather large for a planet its age. The middle planets Samh (c, 0.83 au, 1.8 MJ, initially thought to possibly be a brown dwarf star, e=0.224) and Majriti (d, 2.5 au, 10.2 MJ, e=0.26) have had their inclinations and masses determined with astrometry, the first determination of relative inclinations of exoplanets. They are very eccentric and highly inclined to each other (30 deg). Planet scattering was thought to be a source until the outermost planet was discovered. This is planet e (5.2 au, 1.05 MJ, e = 0.005), which is the most Jupiter-like exoplanet known, and is in 3:1 resonance with planet d. Planet c is in the habitable zone, though any habitable moons would see drastic temperature swings. The star appears to have no Kuiper-belt like disc, perhaps due to its companion star sweeping away this material. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The star is named after an important city in Morocco that bridged the Spanish and Arab worlds. The planets are named after famous Andalusian astronomers.
  • Edasich System - A magnitude 3.1 orange-red giant star 101 ly away also known as Iota Draconis. It can be found in the sky by tracing a line from Polaris to the furthest "dipper" star. The next star over from the alpha star Thuban in the constellation. Contains the first planet (8.8 MJ) discovered orbiting a giant star (12 RS, 1.8 MS), Hypatia, proving planets at Earth-like distances can survive the evolution of their stars to giant phase. It is in an extremely eccentric orbit at 1.5 AU (0.7, 0.34-2.17 AU), which aided its detection as giant stars have pulsations which can mimic the presence of a planet. The habitable zone starts at 6.8 AU, so this planet is well within it during its entire orbit. Its radial velocity effects are only observable when it is at its nearest to the star. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The planet is named after a Neo-Platonic Greek astronomer.
Hatzes
  • Pollux System - Pollux is also known as Beta Geminorum, HR 2990, HD 62509, and Gl 286. It was originally called Polydeuces by the Greeks, after the immortal twin. The brightest star in Geminorum, which suggests it may have used to be the second brightest four centuries ago, and is the 17th brightest star in the sky. It is an orange-red giant star (K0 III) 1.7 times the Sun's mass and 8.8 its diameter and 724 MYO. It is the nearest (34 ly) giant star to the Sun. Its spectra has been used as a stable anchor point since 1943. It has one of the weakest measured magnetic field of any star. Planet Thestias was confirmed in 2006 that was first suspected in 1993. It orbits 1.64 AU in a circular path and is at least 2.3 times as massive as Jupiter. This is much nearer than the present habitable zone, which is centered at 5.7 AU. This is the brightest star in the sky known to have a planet. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Named after the mother of Pollux, Leda. However, Leda is already taken as a moon of Jupiter, so a name derived from her father is used, which is sometimes used to refer to her or her sister..
  • Errai System - Also known as Gamma Cephei, an orange sub-giant (1.4 MS, 4.8 RS, 6.6 GY) with a 1.6 MJ "Sulfurous Cloud Giant", Tadmos, in an eccentric orbet centered at 2 AU (1.8 to 2.2 AU) and a red dwarf (0.5 MS) at 20 AU (11.9 to 28.3). Located 45 ly away at the northern tip of the constellation and one of the brightest stars near Polaris and will succeed Polaris as the North Star (closer to pole in 3000 AD, and at closest in 4000 AD). It is the first close in binary star found to have a planet. The planet was first detected in 1988, and could have been the first discovered, but wasn't confirmed until 2002. Could be called the first real exoplanet detected. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Named after an ancient Syrian city.
Sato
  • Ain System - Ain, also called Epsilon Tauri, is the brightest star in the Hyades Cluster (one of four giant stars in the cluster) and the first found to have a planet. Its name means "Eye" as in the Eye of the Bull, dimmer than Taurus' other eye, Aldebaron, and is 147ly away. The star is a 12.7 RS Red Clump Orange Giant and is the most massive one (2.7 MS) found at the time to host a planet. It used to be a class A main sequence star. The 7.8 MJ super Jovian, Amateru, orbits at 2 AU in a somewhat eccentric orbit. Since no other giant planets were detected in any of the other dwarf stars, that suggests giant planets are more common around giant stars. The age of the system was better known than any others at 625 MY, since it was a member of the cluster, and this put a precise upper limit for giant planet formation times. The harsh environment of the cluster would make planet building by core accretion difficult. One nearby star would appear as bright as Venus, while Ain would be as bright as the full moon from it. The star would appear 7 times as large as the Sun does from the planet. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The planet is named after a Japanese sun goddess, or a shrine dedicated to her.
Japanese Giant Star Survey
  • Xi Aquilae System - Libertas (Xi Aquilae) is a 4.7 magnitude, 1.16 MS, 10.4 RS, 4.6 BYO GK clump giant star (in helium burning phase) 184 ly away with a 2.8 MJ planet (Fortitudo) at 0.68 AU. Its spectrum is on the border between an orange and yellow star, and it used to be on the border between a white and blue main sequence star and has only 2/3 the metals as the Sun. The planet is one of three planets around GK clump giants found by a Japanese observatory, and the star is the brightest of the three host stars. When found, the planet has the shortest period (136d) of any found around evolved stars and it is possible that any planets closer in would have been consumed when the star expanded into a Red Giant. The star is very near Altair in Aquila. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Star and planet are latin for Liberty and Fortitude, as represented by an Eagle.
  • 18 Delphinis System - Musica (18 Delphinis) A 5.5 Magnitude Yellow Giant Star 238 ly away with a planet (Arion) over 10 MJ at 2.6 AU and located just interior to the habitable zone. The planet is one of three planets around GK clump giants found by a Japanese observatory in 2008. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Star named for the latin word for music while the planet is named after a Greek poet and musician associated with a Dolphin.
  • HD 81688 System - Intercrus (41 Lyncis, HD 81688) is a magnitude 5.4 orange giant in between a sub-giant and giant with a 2.7 MJ planet at 0.81 AU. Actually in Ursa Major due to a redraw of the boundaries in 1930 and also called HD 81688 to avoid confusion. Has an eccentric and inclined orbit around the galaxy center and it is uncertain if it is a thin disk member. Has a planet Arkas(2.7 MJ and 0.81 AU) that is one of three planets around GK clump giants found by a Japanese observatory. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The star was named for "between the legs" due to its position between the feet of Ursa Major and the planet after Callisto (Ursa Major)'s son, who is also Ursa Minor.
  • HD 104985 System - Tonatiuh (HD 149026) is a helium-fusing yellow giant star in the constellation of Camelopardalis. It is located 317 ly away from Earth. In 2003, an extrasolar planet (Meztli) was discovered in orbit around the star. The first planet (8.3 MJ, 0.95 AU) around a G giant star found during a survey by a Japanese team and the first planet found by a Japanese team. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. Named after an Aztec god of the Sun and goddess of the Moon respectively.
  • 14 Andromedae System - Veritate is an orange giant star (mag 5.22, 2.2 MS) with a 5 MJ planet (Spe) at 0.83 AU. The planet is one of the closest in planets around an evolved star. Only Clump Giants were known to have planets prior to this. Found by a Japanese team. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The names for the stars are Latin "Veritate" (where there is truth) and "Spe" (where there is hope).

Visual Detection

  • Fomalhaut System - Fomalhaut is also known as Piscis Austrini, 24 Piscis Austrini, Gl 881, HD 216956, and HR 8728. A triple star, the second brightest star known to have exoplanets. Star A is a white main sequence star about twice the Sun's mass and somewhat less than twice its radius. It was originally thought to be about 200 million years old, but now thought to be 400 MYO, and will turn into a giant in about a billion years. Its dust disk is observed in unprecedented detail. It appears reminiscent of the "Eye of Sauron" from the Lord of the Rings films. A planet suspected of causing a sharp gap in the ring was suspected and imaged, becoming the first visually detected and the first planet since Neptune to be predicted prior to its discovery. The planet, Dagon, orbits about 115 AU and is between Neptune and 3x Jupiter's mass in an eccentric orbit. Planet b was shown to deviate slightly from its predicted path, stirring up some controversy about the planets' existence. The Hubble instrument that detected it is damaged and will not be fixed, making it unobservable for a time. Later analysis of old Hubble data confirmed its existence. Material surrounding the planet has been imaged, rather than the planet itself, which its discoverers admit takes it off the directly imaged list. The planet is hurdling outward from the star in a highly elongated path and will encounter the inner edge of the outer belt in 2032, where icy debris will smash into its atmosphere (unless its orbit is highly inclined). No heat has been detected from the planet, which suggests it is sub-Jovian in mass and could be as small as Pluto, though this could be explained by dissipation from surrounding dust. Evidence for another planet "slicing" through the dust disk was also found, and it may have been responsible for planet b's elliptical orbit. The shape of the ring was put into focus by ALMA, 140 AU out, 16 AU wide, and 1/7th AU thick, placing limits on proposed shepherding exoplanets and showing them to be quite small (a couple times larger than Mars), perhaps why they weren't detected visually. Some proposed inner planets via effects of debris disk could be better interpreted as gas produced effects. The ring is believed to be continuously replenished by cometary collisions occurring every day. An estimated 260 Billion to 83 Trillion comets could exist in it, equivalent to what is in the Sun's Oort Cloud. Star B, an orange dwarf 0.91 ly away has no known disk. Star C, a recently identified Red Dwarf member of the system, located extremely far from the primary (2.5 ly), was also found to have its own disk. Previous interactions may have tilted Star A's disk. The star is a part of the Castor Moving Group. One of the first 20 exoplanet systems allowed to be given common names by the IAU. The planet is named after a half fish Semitic god.

See AlsoEdit

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.