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Very Hot Jupiters

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Exoplanetary Scratchpad

[SysBP Img]

Hot Jupiters with a period of about 1.5 days, sometimes described as having a period of less than 2 days. There is a tendency for very hot jupiters to be more massive than normal hot jupiter (about twice Jupiter's mass), possibly because smaller Jupiters would not survive that close in to their stars.

Very Hot Jupiters Web PagesEdit

Very Hot Jupiters In the NewsEdit

Sample (Year)Edit

Example SystemsEdit

First DiscoveredEdit

  • OGLE-TR-56 System (first discovered) - Contains first planet discovered by transit and later confirmed by Dopplar Spectroscopy (rather than the other way around). The first OGLE planet confirmed with the Dopplar method. It is 6000 ly away, 10 times as far as any previous known planet, in a different arm of the galaxy. Also the first Very Hot Jupiter and the first non-inflated Hot Jupiter discovered. It may meet its doom in less than a million years. Planet has one of the first two ground-detected atmospheres. Has an atmosphere hotter than any other measured so far. Unlike other hot Jupiters observed, it is way too hot for clouds of silicon or iron to form which would keep it dark.
  • HD 41004 System?? - HD 41004 System
  • OGLE-TR-113 System (second discovered) - A binary orange dwarf star 1800 ly away in a crowded star field in Carina. It contains the second discovered Very Hot Jupiter (34 hours, 0.023 au, 1.3 MJ) and one of the first discovered transiting planets. At one time it was the only known transiting Hot Jupiter with a surface gravity greater than Jupiter's. Between 2002 and 2009, its transit times were found to shorten by 60 ms per earth year. This indicates that it is slowly spiraling towards its sun, the first exoplanet found to be doing this, and may get ripped apart by its star in 1.4 million years, when its period is reduced to 10.8 hours. An alternate explanation may be that an unseen planetary companion is causing the timing differences.
  • OGLE-TR-132 System (third discovered) - Has the third discovered Very Hot Jupiter, validating the believability of the first one found. Transit timing analysis showed no variation, placing limits on further out planets.
  • TrES-3 System (1.3 day) - Has planet TrES-3, the most massive transiting Very Hot Jupiter planet. Planet has one of the first two ground-detected atmospheres. A large ground-based telescope method of observation was pioneered on this planet.
  • SWEEPS-04 System - Hot Super Jovian detected 8500 parsecs away in the galactic bulge. One of only 2 transit candidates bright enough to be confirmed with radial velocity technique.
  • CoRoT-1 System -
  1. REDIRECT Corot-exo-1 System
  • WASP-3 System - One of three systems discovered by Super WASP containing a transiting very hot jupiter so close to its star that it is evaporating. Like the other two, WASP-4 and 5, it is incapable of radiating away heat from its star and instead swells up to significantly larger than Jupiter. This is a planet 81% more massive than Jupiter with 13% larger radius going around in just less day 2 days. Its transit time varies by up to 3 minutes, which indicates that a further planet may be in this system. This would be a further Neptunian planet and would be the first exoplanet detected by measuring eclipse timing deviations of an earlier discovered planet (Transit Timing Variation method). Further observations are needed to confirm the planet, but the best fit is that it is in 2:1 resonance with the larger planet. Planet b found to be in a low inclination prograde orbit with respect to its star's equator.
  • WASP-4 System (10th) - One of three systems discovered by Super WASP containing a transiting very hot jupiter so close to its star that it is evaporating.
  • WASP-5 System - One of three systems discovered by Super WASP containing a transiting planet so close to its star that it is evaporating. A dense very hot jupiter, the densest known Jupiter mass planet at the time of its discovery (Mass is 63% more than Jupiter, Radius is 17% more). Found to orbit in the same manner as its star's rotation, while 6 out of 27 planets analyzed by the WASP team were found to orbit backwards around its star in 2010. Has a candidate planet detected by the Transit Timing Variation method.

NearestEdit

  • HD 189733 System (nearest) - A binary star in Velpulca (the "little fox") consisting of an Orange Dwarf star A and a Red Dwarf B (discovered shortly after planet Ab found and orbiting perpendicular to that planet's orbit and later detected in x-rays) orbiting 216 AU away. Planet Ab (the first nearby Very Hot Jupiter, originally thought to be inflated, is 13% larger and more massive than Jupiter) is the nearest transiting Hot Jupiter (62.9 ly). This is the first exoplanet to have its temperature mapped and was nicknamed Bull's Eye for its hot spot that is significantly offset from the starward pole. 5 years later, it later became the first world to have its thermal emissions mapped in both longtitude and latitude, confirming the hot spot was near the equator. Fast winds are thought to make the temperature of the eternal day and night sides nearly identical, which were later measured to be 2km/s when the planet became the first to have its wind and weather patterns mapped. It is also the first exoplanet for which scattered light in the upper atmosphere has been detected and the second exoplanet with water detected and first with Methane and then Carbon Dioxide detected. It later was the first exoplanet whose gasses were detected from Earth-based telescopes. It was also found to spin up its star and magnetically interact with it, causing stellar storms. Massive X-class solar flares blast off much of the planet's atmosphere and may render it undetectable. Hubble found that its atmosphere was a uniform blue haze. Blue was detected by determining which wavelengths were blocked during a transit. It was also found to rain molten glass, sideways, with 7000 km/hr winds and 1000C. It became the first exoplanet whose transit was detected in X-Rays, which revealed it had a very large extended outer atmosphere, which is losing material rapidly. The star is much more magnetically active for its age, possibly due to the planet's presence. There is speculation that it could have large planet-wide auroras. It's already-known mass was measured using an atmospheric pressure method to test its viability. By studying sodium spectra, it was determined that it gets hotter with altitude.

Shortest PeriodEdit

  • PSR 1719-14 System (2 hours) - A millisecond pulsar containing a planet composed of a heavy elements such as Carbon and Oxygen and likely has a diamond-like crystalline structure. The planet is the compressed remnants of a white dwarf star with 99% of its massed ripped away. Orbits only once every 2 hours (closer than the radius of the Sun).
  • Gliese 163 System (0.6 days??) - A nearby red dwarf system 50 light years containing three planets, including one potentially habitable one. The innermost planet b is a Hot Jovian with a third of Jupiter's mass (have some data discrepancy, Extrasolar Planet Encyclopedia says 0.35 Jupiter Mass, 0.6 day period, Wikipedia says 9 days. The latter is more likely since it's not acknowledged as a Hot Jupiter around a Red Dwarf.). The potentially habitable planet c is 7 Earth masses large and receives 30-40% more radiation than the Earth does, on the inner edge of the habitability zone. It is thought to be unlikely that any runaway greenhouse gas would heat it up beyond habitability. It is the fifth most similar exoplanet of the six known potentially habitable exoplanets known at the time of its discovery. Likely too hot for most organisms, but some extremophiles may flourish on it. Its composition is unknown, but it is thought to be a mixture of rock and ice. There's a possibility of an outermost planet with 20 times Earth's mass much further out with a period of 669 days.
  • WASP-19 System (0.8 days) - A Very Hot Jupiter with the shortest known period (19h) for a transiting planet at the time of its discovery late in 2009 and currently has the shortest known period for a Hot Jupiter. It's mass is slightly greater than Jupiter, but its diameter is 30% greater, making it as large as some small stars. The planet appeared brighter than expected, perhaps due to a lack of Titanian and Vanadian Oxides in the upper stratosphere (perhaps at a lower level so that it doesn't act as a dark layer). Molecules were not detected, but models suggest two possibilities, either a Carbon rich planet (plenty of CO and CH4) or a Oxygen rich planet (containing plenty of CO, CO2, and H2O). The planet is only at 1.2 times the Roche limit and likely moved inwards due to interactions with a third body. One of 5 exoplanets whose water abundance was measured by Hubble in 2013 and found to be less abundant than expected, probably due to a layer of haze or dust blocking detection.
  • WASP-43 System (0.8 days) - Orange dwarf star with a Very Hot Jupiter 260ly away. The star was the smallest mass star known to have a Hot Jupiter at the time of the planet's discovery. The planet is currently the Hot Jupiter (Jupiter size but twice as massive) orbiting the closest to its star (though not the smallest period, 19 hours) when discovered. The planet is relatively dense, with a mass of 1.78 Jupiter, but only 93% of its radius. The tidally locked day side is 3000F, while it's night is 1000F. The most detailed weather map was obtained for this planet, thanks to the first observations of three whole periods of any planets. One mapped the thermal properties of different longitudes, and the other its water distribution. The planet reflects very little sunlight, indicative of no water clouds in the atmosphere.
  • WASP-18 System (1 day) - A hot F6 star that has an Inflated Very Hot Super Jupiter that is only 2.5 stellar radii from its host star. It may perish soon once it reaches its star's roche limit, but astronomers are puzzled why it hasn't already. Because it orbits much faster than its star rotates, tidal effects should be causing it to fall inwards. Further observations should reveal its rate of decay. Has the shortest period of any Hot Jupiter at the time of its discovery in 2009 (22hours). Extremely hot because of its close distance and brightness of its star, reaches 3000K. A very large planet with 70% more radius than Jupiter and 40% more mass. Very near to the Roche limit, it is expected to be elongated (football shaped). Initially thought to be slightly eccentric, this is not the case.
  • WASP-12 System (1 day) - The shortest period transiting Hot Jupiter known when discovered in 2008 and the first carbon-rich planet ever found (more Carbon than Oxygen). One of the two largest known planets at 1.79 Jupiter radii. Hottest known exoplanet at time of its discovery. Planet is being ripped apart by star. It is stretched in the shape of a rugby ball and leaves a ring around its star. Huge cloud of material detected around the planet containing elements never before detected on an exoplanet. This cloud is much larger than expected, and shrouds the entire star, making it undetectable at some wavelengths. Studying this cloud could reveal magnetic properties of the stellar system. Magnesium found in this shroud supports the blow-off theory where Hydrogen escapes from the planet so quickly other material is blown off with it. Two other Hot Jupiters are known to have planetary enveloping clouds, and others as close are expected to have similar system wide clouds, but not those further away. It has much more methane than water vapor. It may produce shock waves as it plows through its star's stellar wind (the first evidence of shocks around an exoplanet, like Earth and Saturn's bowshocks), possibly produced by a strong planetary magnetic field. This could protect its atmosphere from being stripped away. It could have a diamond core and other terrestrial planets in system would have black spots on them and also be carbon based. One of 5 exoplanets whose water abundance was measured by Hubble in 2013 and found to be less abundant than expected, probably due to a layer of haze or dust blocking detection..
  • OGLE-TR-56 System (1.2 day) - Contains first planet discovered by transit and later confirmed by Dopplar Spectroscopy (rather than the other way around). The first OGLE planet confirmed with the Dopplar method. It is 6000 ly away, 10 times as far as any previous known planet, in a different arm of the galaxy. Also the first Very Hot Jupiter and the first non-inflated Hot Jupiter discovered. It may meet its doom in less than a million years. Planet has one of the first two ground-detected atmospheres. Has an atmosphere hotter than any other measured so far. Unlike other hot Jupiters observed, it is way too hot for clouds of silicon or iron to form which would keep it dark.
  • HAT-P-23 System (1.2 day) - A yellow dwarf star system containing very hot super Jupiter.
  • WASP-33 System (1.2 day) - Aka HD 15082, this is the only known Delta Scuti variable star (kA5 hA8 mF4) known to host a planet. The star is much hotter than the Sun and 50% more massive. The planet is a retrograde inflated hot super Jupiter and is by far hottest measured exoplanet (3150C), 900C hotter than WASP-12b, and hotter than some red dwarf stars. It is one of the 6 out of 27 planets analyzed by the WASP team found to orbit backwards around its star in 2010. The planet may be responsible for the star's pulsations.
  • TrES-3 System (1.3 day) - Has planet TrES-3, the most massive transiting Very Hot Jupiter planet. Planet has one of the first two ground-detected atmospheres. A large ground-based telescope method of observation was pioneered on this planet.

Other PlanetsEdit

  • CoRoT-14 System - One of seven transiting exoplanet systems discovered by CoRoT announced in Jun 2010. Has a similar size to Jupiter, but is 7.5 times as massive and 6 times as dense. This is only the second such very hot planet discovered.

See AlsoEdit

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